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  1. Data integration Most slides are borrowed from Dr. Chen Li, UC Irvine

  2. Motivation Biblio sever Legacy database Plain text files Support seamless access to autonomous and heterogeneous information sources.

  3. Comparison Shopping Applications • Comparison shopping Lowest price of the DVD: “The Matrix”? • Supply-chain management Buyer 1 Supplier 1 Buyer 2 Supplier 2 Integrator … … Supplier M Buyer M

  4. Mediation architecture Mediator Wrapper Wrapper Wrapper Source 1 Source 2 Source n

  5. Challenges • Sources are heterogeneous: • Different data models: relational, object-oriented, XML, … • Different schemas and representations. E.g., “Keanu Reeves” or “Reeves, Keanu” or “Reeves, K.” etc. • Describe source contents • Use source data to answer queries • Sources have limited query capabilities • Data quality • Performance • … …

  6. Research projects • Garlic (IBM), • Information Manifold (AT&T) • InfoSleuth (MCC), • Tsimmis, InfoMaster (Stanford) • Internet Softbot/Razor/Tukwila (U Wash.) • Hermes (Maryland) • Telegraph / Eddies (UC Berkeley) • Niagara (Univ Wisconsin) • DISCO, Agora (INRIA, France) • SIMS/Ariadne (USC/ISI) • Emerac/Havasu (ASU)

  7. Industry • Nimble Technology • Enosys Markets • IBM • BEA

  8. Virtual integration • Leave the data in the sources • When a query comes in: • Determine the relevant sources to the query • Break down the query into sub-queries for the sources • Get the answers from the sources, filter them if needed and combine them appropriately • Data is fresh • Otherwise known as On Demand Integration Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  9. Wrapper Wrapper Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation Query Result End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution Mediator Global Schema Web Services XML 1 Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  10. Wrapper Wrapper Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation Query Result End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution Mediator Global Schema Web Services 2 XML 1 Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  11. Wrapper Wrapper Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation Query Result End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution 3 Mediator Global Schema Web Services 2 XML 1 Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  12. Wrapper Wrapper Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation 4 Query Result End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution 3 Mediator Global Schema Web Services 2 XML 1 Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  13. Wrapper Wrapper Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation 4 Query Result 5 End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution 3 Mediator Global Schema Web Services 2 XML 1 Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  14. Virtual Integration Architecture Design-Time Run-Time  Mapping Tool Query Reformulation 4 Query Result 5 End User Mediation Language Optimization & Execution 3 6 Mediator Global Schema Web Services 2 XML 1 Wrapper Wrapper Data Source Data Source Local Schema Local Schema Slides from Dr. Michalis Petropoulos

  15. Outline • Basics: theories of conjunctive queries • Global-as-view (GAV) approach to data integration • Local-as-view (LAV) approach to data integration

  16. head Conjunctive Queries (CQ’s) in Datalog • Most common form of query; equivalent to select-project-join (SPJ) queries • Useful for data integration • Form: q(X) :- p1(X1), p2(X2),…, pn(Xn). • Head q(X) represents the query answers • Body p1(X1), p2(X2),…, pn(Xn)represents the query conditions • The head is true if all the subgoals are true. • Each pi(Xi) is called a subgoal. Xi is a vector of variables or constants. • Shared variables represent join conditions • Constants represent “Attribute=const” selection conditions • A relation can appear in multiple predicates (subgoals) body q(X) :- p1(X1), p2(X2), …, pn(Xn) subgoals

  17. Conjunctive queries • Head and subgoals are atoms. • An atom consists of a predicate applied to zero or more arguments • Predicates represent relations. • An atom is true for given values of its variables iff the arguments form a tuple of the relation. • Whenever an assignment of values to all variables makes all subgoals true, the rule asserts that the resulting head is also true.

  18. Conjunctive Queries: example • Schema student(name, courseNum), course(number, Instructor) • SQL SELECT name FROM student, course WHERE student.courseNum=course.number AND instructor=‘Li’; • Equal to: ans(SN) :- student(SN, CN), course(CN,’Li’). • Predicates student and course correspond to relations names • Two subgoals: student(SN, CN) andcourse(CN,’Li’) • Variables: SN, CN. Constant: ‘Li’ • Shared variable, CN, corresponds to “student.courseNum=course.number” • Variable SN in the head: the answer to the query

  19. Why not SQL • Datalog is more concise • Let us state some general principles • e.g., containment of rules that are almost impossible to state correctly in SQL. • Will see that later • Recursion is much easier to express in Datalog.

  20. Answer to a CQ • For a CQ Q on database D, the answer Q(D) is a set of heads of Q if we: • Substitute constants for variables in the body of Q in all possible ways • Require all subgoals to be true • Example: ans(SN) :- student(SN, CN), course(CN,’Li’). • Tuples are also called facts: student(Jack, 184), student(Tom,215), …, course(184,Li), course(215,Li), … • Answer “Jack”: SNJack,CN184 • Answer “Tom”: SNTom,CN215 • Answer “Jack”: SNJack,CN215 (duplicate eliminated) Course Student

  21. Query containment • For two queries Q1 and Q2, we say Q1 is contained in Q2, denoted Q1Q2, if any database D, we have Q1(D)Q2(D). • We say Q1 and Q2 are equivalent, denoted Q1Q2, if Q1(D)Q2(D) and Q2(D)Q1(D). • Example: Q1: ans(SN) :- student(SN, CN), course(CN, ’Li’). Q2: ans(SN) :- student(SN, CN), course(CN, INS). We have: Q1(D)Q2(D).

  22. Another example Q1: p(X,Y) :- r(X,W), b(W,Z), r(Z,Y). Q2: p(X,Y) :- r(X,W), b(W,W), r(W,Y). • We have: Q2 Q1 • Proof: • For any DB D, suppose p(x,y) is in Q2(D). Then there is a w such that r(x,w), b(w,w), and r(w,y) are in D. • For Q1, consider the substitution: X x, W w, Z w, Y y. • Thus the head of Q1 becomes p(x,y), meaning that p(x,y) is also in Q1(D). • In general, how to test containment of CQ’s? • Containment mappings

  23. Test containment • Two approaches: • Containment mappings. • Canonical databases. • Really the same in the simple CQ case covered so far. • Containment test is NP-complete, but CQ’s tend to be small so here is one case where intractability doesn’t hurt you.

  24. Containment mappings • A containment mapping from Q2 to Q1: Map variables of Q2 to variables of Q1, such that: • Head of Q2 becomes head of Q1; • Each subgoal of Q2 becomes somesubgoal of Q1. • It is not necessary that every subgoal of Q1 is the target of some subgoal of Q2. • Q1 Q2iff there is a containment mapping from Q2 to Q1. • Note that the containment mapping is opposite the containment --- it goes from the larger (containing CQ) to the smaller (contained CQ). • Example: Q1: p(X,Y) :- r(X,W), b(W,Z), r(Z,Y). Q2: p(X,Y) :- r(X,W), b(W,W), r(W,Y). • Containment mapping from Q1 to Q2: X  X, Y  Y, W  W, Z  W • No containment mapping from Q2 to Q1: • For b(W,W) in Q2, its only possible target in Q1 is b(W,Z) • However, we cannot have a mapping WW and WZ, since each variable cannot be mapped to two different variables

  25. A slightly different example • Predicates can be repeated Q1: p(X,Y):- r(X,Z), g(Z,Z), r(Z,Y). Q2: p(A,B):- r(A,C), g(C,D), r(D,B). Containment mapping m:m(A)=X;m(B)=Y;m(C)=m(D)=Z.

  26. X Y Z Another Example Q1: p(X,Y):- r(X,Y), g(Y,Z). Q2: p(A,B):- r(A,B), r(A,C). Q1 looks for: Q2 looks for: A B C

  27. And not every subgoal need be a target. Notice two subgoals can map to one. Example - Continued Q1: p(X,Y):- r(X,Y), g(Y,Z). Q2: p(A,B):- r(A,B), r(A,C). Containment mapping:m(A)=X;m(B)=m(C)=Y.

  28. Example - Concluded • Q1: p(X,Y):- r(X,Y), g(Y,Z). • Q2: p(A,B):- r(A,B), r(A,C). • No containment mapping from Q1 to Q2. • g(Y,Z) cannot map anywhere, since there is no gsubgoal in Q2. • Thus, Q1 properly contained in Q2.

  29. Extending CQ’s • CQ’s with built-in predicates: • We can add more conditions to variables in a CQ. • Example: student(name, GPA, courseNum), course(number,instructor,year) Q1(SN) :- student(SN, G, CN), course(CN, ’Li’), G>=3.5. Q2(SN) :- student(SN, G, CN), course(CN, ’Li’), G>=3.5, Y < 2002. Q2(SN)  Q1(SN). • Datalog queries: • a (possibly infinite) set of CQ’s with (possibly) recursion • Example: parent(Parent, Child) • Query: finding all ancestors of Tom ancestor(P,C) :- parent(P, C). ancestor(P,C) :- ancestor(P,X), parent(X, C). result(P) :- ancestor(P, ‘tom’).

  30. Although CQ theory first appeared at a database conference, the AI community has taken CQ’s to heart. • CQ’s, or similar logics like description logic, are used in a number of AI applications. • Again, their design theory is really containment and equivalence.

  31. Outline • Basics: theories of conjunctive queries • Global-as-view (GAV) approach to data integration • Local-as-view (LAV) approach to data integration

  32. GAV approach to data integration • Readings: • Jeffrey Ullman, Information Integration Using Logical Views, ICDT 1997. • RamanaYerneni, Chen Li, Hector Garcia-Molina, and Jeffrey Ullman, Computing Capabilities of Mediators, SIGMOD 1999.

  33. Global-as-view Approach med(Dealer,City,Make,Year) = R1 R2 Mediator R1(Dealer,City) R2(Dealer, Make, Year) • Mediator exports views defined on source relations • med(Dealer,City,Make,Year) = R1 R2 • A query is posted on mediator views: • SELECT * FROM med • WHERE Year = ‘2001’; • ans(D,C,M, ‘2001’) :- med(D,C,M,‘2001’). • Mediator expands query to source queries: • SELECT * FROM R1, R2 • WHERE Year = ‘2001’; • ans(D,C,M,’2001’) :- R1(D,C), R2(D,M, ‘2001’).

  34. GAV Approach • Project: TSIMMIS at Stanford • Advantages: • User queries are easy to define • Query transformation generation is straightforward • Disadvantages: • Not all source information is exported: • Not easily scalable: every time a new source is added, mediator views need to be changed. • Research issues • Efficient query execution? • Deal with limited source capabilities?

  35. Limited source capabilities • Complete scans of relations not possible • Reasons: • Legacy databases or structured files: limited interfaces • Security/Privacy • Performance concerns • Example 1: legacy databases with restrictive interfaces title author Given an author, return the books. Ullman DBMS TeX Knuth … …

  36. Another example: Web search forms www.imdb.com

  37. Problems • How to describe source restrictions? • How to compute mediator restrictions from sources? • How to answer queries efficiently given these restrictions? • How to compute as many answers as possible to a query? • …

  38. Computing mediator restrictions • Motivation: do not want users to be frustrated by submitting a query that cannot be answerable by the mediator • Example: • Source 1: book(author?, title, price) • Capability: “bff”. b—boufnd, f--free • i.e., we must provide an author, and can get title and price info • Source 2: review(title?, reviewer, rate) • Capability: “bff” • i.e., we must provide a book title, and can get other info • Mediator view: MedView(A?,T,P,RV,RT) :- book(A,T,P),review(T,RV,RT). • Query on the mediator view: • Ans(RT) :- MedView(A, ‘db’, P, RV, RT). • I.e., “find the review rates of DB books” • But the mediator cannot answer this query, since we do not know the authors. • There are various ways to compute the mediator view • We want to tell the user beforehand what queries can be answered

  39. Outline • Basics: theories of conjunctive queries; • Global-as-view (GAV) approach to data integration; • Local-as-view (LAV) approach to data integration.

  40. Local-as-view (LAV) approach Mediator sources • There are global predicates, e.g., “car,” “person,” “book,” etc. • They can been seen as mediator views • The content of each source is described using these global predicates • A query to the mediator is also defined on the global predicates • The mediator finds a way to answer the query using the source contents

  41. Example Mediator S1(Dealer,City) S2(Dealer,Make,Year) • Global predicates: Loc(Dealer,City),Sell(Dealer,Make,Year) • Source content defined on global predicates: • S1(Dealer,City) :- Loc(Dealer, City). • S2(Dealer,Make,Year) :- Sell(Dealer, Make, Year). • In general, each definition could be more complicated, rather than direct copies. • Queries defined on global predicates. • Q: ans(D,M,Y) :- Loc(D, ’windsor’), Sell(D, M, Y). • Users do not know source views. • The mediator decides how to use source views to answer queries. • “Answering queries using views”: • ans(D, M, Y) :- S1(D,’windsor’), S2(D,M,Y).

  42. Answering queries using views Mediator Query V1(Dealer,City):- Loc(Dealer, City). V2(Dealer,Make,Year):-Sell(Dealer, Make, Year). V3(D,C,M,Y) :- Loc(D,C),Sell(D,M,Y). V4(D,C,M,Y) :- Loc(D,C),Sell(D,M,Y), Y<1970. • Source views can be complicated: SPJs, arithmetic comparisons,… • Not easy to decide how to answer a query using source views • Query: ans(D,M) :- Loc(D,‘windsor'), Sell(D,M,Y). • Rewriting: • ans(D,M) :- V3(D,‘windsor’, M,Y). • ans(D,M) :- V1(D,’windsor’), V2(D,M,Y). • … • “Equivalent rewriting”: compute the “same” answer as the query • A rewriting can join multiple source views

  43. Arithmetic comparisons Mediator V(D,C,M,Y):- Loc(D,C),Sell(D,M,Y),Y<1970. • Comparisons can make the problem even trickier • Query: ans(D,M) :- Loc(D,‘windsor'), Sell(D,M,Y). • Rewriting: ans(D,M) :- V(D,‘windsor’, M,Y). • Contained rewriting: only retrieve cars before 1970. • Query: ans(D,M):- Loc(D, ‘windsor'), Sell(D,M,Y), Y < 1960. • Rewriting: ans(D,M) :- V(D,‘windsor’, M, Y), Y < 1960.

  44. Create View R5 AS SELECT B.ISBN, B.Title FROM Book B WHERE B.Genre = ‘Humor’ R5(ISBN, Title) :-Book(ISBN, Title, ‘humor’, Year). Local-as-View (LAV) • Create View R1 AS • SELECT B.ISBN, B.Title, A.Name • FROM Book B, Author A • WHERE A.ISBN = B.ISBN • AND B.Year < 1970 • R1(ISBN, Title, Name):- • Book(ISBN, Title, Genre,Year), • Author(ISBN, Name), Year<1970. Global Schema Book ISBN Title Genre Year Author ISBN Name Humor Books Books before 1970 Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5 Local Schema Local Schema Local Schema Local Schema Local Schema R5 ISBN Title R1 ISBN Title Name

  45. LAV details • Query: Find authors of humor books Q(Name):-Book(ISBN,Title,”humor”,YEAR), Author(ISBN, Name) • Views: R1(ISBN, Title, Name):- Book(ISBN, Title, Genre,Year), Author(ISBN, Name), Year<1970. R5(ISBN, Title) :-Book(ISBN, Title, ‘humor’, Year). • Rewriting of Q using views: Q’(Name):-R1(ISBN, Title, Name), R2(ISBN, Title) • Expansion of Q’ Q’’(Name):- Book(ISBN, Title, Genre,Year), Author(ISBN, Name), Year<1970, Book(ISBN, Title, ‘humor’, Year). Q’’’(Name):- Author(ISBN, Name), Year<1970, Book(ISBN, Title, ‘humor’, Year). • Q’’’ is contained in Q

  46. Query Rewritings • Given a query Q and a set of views V: • A conjunctive query P is called arewritingof Q using V if P only uses views in V, and P computes a partial answer of Q. That is: PexpQ. A rewriting is also called acontained rewriting (CR). • A conjunctive query P is called an “equivalent rewriting” (ER) of Q using V if P only uses views in V, and P computes the exact answer of Q. That is: Pexp Q. • How to rewrite a query? • Bucket algorithm is the starting point

  47. Bucket algorithm • It is the basic method for query rewriting • Each subgoal must be “covered” by some view • Make a list of candidates (buckets) per query subgoal • Consider combinations of candidates from different buckets • Not all combos are “compatible” • Keep the compatible ones and minimize them • Discard the ones contained in another • Take their union

  48. The Bucket Algorithm: Example //Students taking 500 or higher courses after aug 98. V1(Std,Crs,Qtr,Title) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), Crs≥ 500, Qtr ≥ Aut98 //students and profs V2(Std,Prof,Crs,Qtr):- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr) //students before aug 94 V3(Std,Crs):- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut94 //profs before aug 97 V4(Prof,Crs,Title,Qtr):- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut97 //students, profs after aug 95, courses higher than 300. q(S,C,P):- teaches(P,C,Q), reg(S,C,Q), course(C,T), C ≥ 300, Q ≥ Aut95 Step 1: For each query subgoal, put the relevant sources into a bucket

  49. The Bucket Algorithm: Example V1(Std,Crs,Qtr,Title) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), Crs ≥ 500, Qtr ≥ Aut98 V2(Std,Prof,Crs,Qtr) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr) V3(Std,Crs) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut94 V4(Prof,Crs,Title,Qtr) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut97 q(S,C,P) :- teaches(P,C,Q), reg(S,C,Q), course(C,T), C ≥ 300, Q ≥ Aut95 PProf, CCrs, QQtr Note: Arithmetic predicates don’t pose a problem in this step Buckets teaches reg course V2 V4

  50. The Bucket Algorithm: Example V1(Std,Crs,Qtr,Title):- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), Crs ≥ 500, Qtr ≥ Aut98 V2(Std,Prof,Crs,Qtr) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr) V3(Std,Crs) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut94 V4(Prof,Crs,Title,Qtr) :- reg(Std,Crs,Qtr), course(Crs,Title), teaches(Prof,Crs,Qtr), Qtr ≤ Aut97 q(S,C,P) :- teaches(P,C,Q), reg(S,C,Q), course(C,T), C ≥ 300, Q ≥ Aut95 SStd, CCrs, QQtr Note: V3 doesn’t work: arithmetic predicates not consistent V4 doesn’t work: S not in the output of V4 Buckets teaches reg course V2 V1 V4 V2