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COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE LAMINATES MADE BY AUTOMATED FIBER PLACEMENT PROCESS AND HAND LAY-UP PROCESS. Kulbir Singh Madhok Concordia Centre for Composites (CONCOM) Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Concordia University http ://concom.encs.concordia.ca/.

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Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OFOUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE LAMINATES MADE BY AUTOMATED FIBER PLACEMENT PROCESS AND HAND LAY-UP PROCESS

Kulbir Singh Madhok

Concordia Centre for Composites (CONCOM)

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Concordia University

http://concom.encs.concordia.ca/


Contents
CONTENTS

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Ooa prepreg technology
OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Prepregs designed specifically for processing without the autoclave

  • Dates back to 1990’s

  • Used only for Secondary and Non-Structural Parts

  • Today, for Primary/Secondary Aerospace Structures

  • Airbus A350 XWB Secondary Wing Panel Sets, 2013

  • Automotive body, Racing, Marine, Infrastructure

  • Newer OOA prepreg systems has been aided by a better

    • Understanding of mechanisms of air extraction

    • Tailoring resin rheology

% Voids Content !!!

RESIN RICH AREAS !!!


Advantages of ooa technology
Advantages of OOA Technology

  • Potential processing cost reduction

    • Autoclaves are expensive equipment capital

    • Less expensive tooling material (OOA typically low-moderate cure temperature)

    • Energy savings

  • Increased Production / Low Cycle-time

    • Reduced Overheads

  • Large sized structures manufacturing can be facilitated

  • Sandwich panels can be cured more easily

  • Larger manufacturer and subcontractor base


Ooa technology processing
OOA Technology Processing

Fully impregnated UD Tape

Air entrapment between plies

Proper de-bulking removes the entrapped air


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Automated manufacturing
Automated Manufacturing

  • Automated Tape Laying

    • Single wide UD tape (6’’ to 12’’)

    • Flat or Gentle Contour parts

    • High Lay-up rate

  • Automated Fiber Placement

    • Single or Multiple tape (0.25’’ to 0.5’’)

    • Smaller parts with Complex Geometries

    • Debulkingachieved by Roller Pressure


Automated manufacturing1
Automated Manufacturing

Materials Options

  • Resins: Any, e.g. epoxy, polyester, vinylester, phenolic

  • Fibers: Any. But must be provided in the form of a uni-directional tape; with a width of 0.125-0.5 inch or 6-12 inches

  • Cores: Can be used; but must be able to take the load applied by the robotic arm while laying the fibers

    Main Advantages

  • This can be a very fast and therefore economic method of laying material down

  • Out of Autoclave Manufacturing

  • Can be used to make typical parts that are required in large numbers

  • Minimal labour required

  • Automated process, hence precision and accuracy

    Typical Applications

  • Primarily to make Fuselage, Tail-booms, Flat plates, Aircraft Wings

  • In Aerospace and Automobile industry its used to make wide variety of parts



Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Present work
Present Work

  • Investigate and compare the properties of OOA laminates made by AFP and Hand Lay up

    • Tensile

    • Compressive

    • In-Plane Shear

  • Evaluate the effect of pressure in the curing process

  • Microscopic analysis

  • Demonstrate Cost model

  • Future Work



Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Challenges
Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

    • To achieve internal void content as low as Autoclave Cured Materials (<1%)

    • Minimize Resin Rich areas

    • Ensure High Fiber Volume Fraction (~55%)

  • Maintain Structural Performance

    • Tensile, Shear, Compressive

  • Flexible curing with various manufacturing techniques

    • HLU, AFP, ATLor Combination

    • Cost effectiveness of the process (AFP+OOA)


Quality assurance
Quality Assurance

  • OOA processing requires inherently more process control and greater manufacturing controls over lay-up, debulking, cure and inspection to ensure good part quality with low void contents

    • Dual-loop temperature control in the Autoclave/Oven

    • DSC test of the specimens to ensure proper Degree of Cure

    • Microscopy to evaluate the Void Content, the Fiber Volume and the Resin Rich Areas

  • Proper processing is key to OOA prepreg laminate quality

  • Proper Vacuum Pressure must be maintained all times


Curing cycle
Curing Cycle

2.5ºC/minramp

Pressure 60 psi (Optional)

Free Standing Post-cure at 177 °C for 2 hours


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


0 tensile test
0º Tensile Test

157 GPa

167 GPa

140 GPa

149 GPa


90 tensile test
90º Tensile Test

11 GPa

10 GPa

10 GPa

9GPa



In plane shear test
In-Plane Shear Test

5.3 GPa

5.8 GPa

4.5 GPa

5GPa






Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion





Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

Oven Cured

Autoclave Cured

A

F

P

6.7µm

6.9µm

H

L

U

7.2µm

7.7µm


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Cost model assumptions
Cost Model Assumptions

  • The cost of prepreg tape, $80/lb

  • The weight of the prepreg needed 6 lbs

  • Skilled Labor / Technician cost, $75/hr

  • Mold cost $10,000 (Low Cost) and $30,000 (e.g. Invar Steel)

  • AFP Layup rate of 3lb/hr

  • Autoclave/Oven cycle time 6 hours

  • Oven cue time 3 hours

  • Over-head cost of Autoclave, $180

  • Over-head cost of AFP Machine, $250/hr

  • Over-head cost of Oven $60/hr

  • Inspection Costs $250/hr

  • Inspection time 1 hour

  • Miscellaneous costs $100


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

$3,298$2,263 $3,548$2,513


Kulbir singh madhok concordia centre for composites concom

  • OOA Prepreg Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing and Testing of Samples

  • Challenges

  • Quality Assurance

  • Mechanical Test Results

  • Microscopic Analysis

  • Cost Model

  • Conclusion


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Gas Extraction is the key in OOA Technology

  • The Pressured applied by the AFP head plays an important role in Debulking

  • Visual Inspection of Incoming tape is important

  • Compatible Strength of OOA Technology

  • Automated Manufacturing…Promising !

  • Controlled Voids Content and Fiber Volume

  • Cost Savings demonstrated

Future Work

  • Characterization of OOA Thick Laminates

  • OOA Sandwich structures