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Introduction. A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”. A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or reverse pass. The technique tells you “how” a pass was made. In your jotter write down a skill from the following activities and

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Introduction
Introduction

A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”.

A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or

reverse pass. The technique tells you “how” a pass was made.

In your jotter write down a skill from the following activities and

three different techniques. Explain why you would use each different

technique.


Easy and complex skills
Easy and Complex Skills

One of these skills is easier to perform.

A back flip is more difficult (complex)

than balancing on one leg (easy).

In all activities you will find easy and

complex skills.

In your jotter write down 5 different activities and give an example of a complex and

easy skill from each activity.

Easy SkillsComplex Skills

Few judgements to be made Many judgements

Undemanding Demanding

Little co-ordination needed Co-ordination vital

Simple movements Complicated movements

Easy environment (no opposition) Difficult environment


Complex skills
Complex skills

Decision making and coordination are essential to complex skills.

In your jotter write down an individual activity, a skill or technique from that activity

and explain the importance of coordination in the chosen skill/technique.

An example has been given for you.

Activity – Gymnastics Skill/Technique – Cartwheel

During the cartwheel the arms and legs must be perfectly

coordinated to achieve the correct timing of hands touching

the ground then legs within the skill.

In your jotter write down a team activity, a skill or technique from that activity and

Explain the importance of decision making in the chosen skill/technique.

Activity – Hockey Skill/Technique – Reverse Pass

When using the reverse pass the player has very little time to decide when and who

to pass to. Making decisions quickly is a trait of skilful players.


Breaking down skills
Breaking Down Skills

A performance of a skill can be broken down into 3 parts. Preparation, Action

and Recovery. E.g,

Preparation – Toss the ball into the air, and pull the racket

back.

Action – Lift up and throw the face of the racket to

make contact with the ball. (Throwing

action)

Recovery - Follow through in the direction you wish the

ball to travel

In your jotter select 4 different activities and a skill/technique from each. Describe

in detail the preparation, action and recovery for each one.


Gradual build up
Gradual Build Up

Gradual Build Up is a way of learning a skill progressively – “bit by bit”. Each part

of the skill is introduced and mastered before another new part of the skill is

introduced.

Gradual Build Up is used to learn new skills which might be dangerous or too

Complex for a beginner. E.g.

Begin by attempting sitting dives from pool side.

Crouched dives from pool side.

Standing dives from pool side.

As technique improves divers may continue to increase

height.

In your jotter write down 2 more skills which you may learn using gradual build up,

for each skill write down at least 3 stages of learning.


Whole part whole
Whole-Part-Whole

Learning or developing skills using the whole-part-whole method involves

practising the whole skill and then practice a part of it before putting it back into

the whole skill again.

Whole-part-whole is used to isolate and practice parts of a skill which are proving

difficult to master, by breaking down the skill into parts it can make it easier

to master.

Activity – Swimming Skill/Technique – Backstroke

Practise the whole stroke

Using a float practise “legs only”

Swim the full stoke again, noting any improvement

In your jotter write down an activity and a skill/technique. Describe the part of the

skill which you found difficult to master. Explain how this affected the whole skill.

Describe a practice you used to improve the problem part.


Learning skills
Learning Skills

Skills can be learned and practised using pressure dills, conditioned games, small

sided games and co-operative practice.

Pressure can break skills down in a game situation. Practising under pressure will

benefit overall performance.

In your jotter select an activity, skill and describe a pressure drill used to practise the

skill. You may use a diagram to explain.

Placing conditions on performers during practise can help to improve skills in the

overall game. E.g. During a passing practise in Football players are only allowed

one touch.

In your jotter write down another example of a conditioned practise/game. Explain

how this will effect the overall performance.


Learning skills1
Learning Skills

In your jotter describe a practice where you co-operated with others. Explain how

this practice helped your overall performance.

In your jotter give 3 reasons why small sided games are used to practice skills.

Many practises allow performers to work on skills and an aspect of fitness together.

E.g.

A gymnast who spends 30 minutes practising the splits, is

simultaneously working on their suppleness.

In your jotter write down another example using a

different activity, skill and aspect of fitness. Give one

reason why people practice skills and an aspect of fitness

simultaneously.


Internal external feedback
Internal/External Feedback

Feedback is information you receive on your performance. There are 2 main types

of feedback INTERNAL and EXTERNAL.

Internal feedback is sometimes called “kinaesthetic”. The feedback comes

from within the performer, this type lets the performer “feel” the movements.

In your jotter chose an activity and a skill/technique where you received internal

feedback. How did the feedback effect the rest of the performance.

External feedback is feedback given from another. There are 3 main types:

Visual

Verbal

Written

In your jotter describe 3 occasions where you have received the above feedback.


Feedback demonstrations
Feedback + Demonstrations

Feedback can be useful when learning new skills/techniques. Feedback should be

given directly after the performer completes the skill/technique.

In your jotter explain why.

When giving feedback it is important that the right amount is given to the performer. Too much feedback is as unhelpful as too little.

In your jotter explain why.

Demonstrations can be given by the teacher, class mate or a video. They allow you

to see the skill before you attempt it.


Automatic skills
Automatic Skills

Golf players will practise the same shot many times trying to

make the shot automatic.

Once a skill is automatic the benefits are that:

The performer does not need to think about what needs to be

done to execute the skill.

The success rate will be high.

The performer can concentrate on other things. E.g. the next

move.

In your jotter write down 2 problems which a performer might face when practising

a skill for too long.

In your jotter write down 2 ways which this can be avoided.


Centre of gravity
Centre of Gravity

The centre of gravity for a human is located around the area of the naval. In many activities performers need to be maintain a static centre of gravity to remain stable.

E.g. Activity – Gymnastics Skill - Handstand

In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill from

each where the performer must maintain a static centre of

gravity.

In other activities the centre of gravity is dynamic (always

Moving).

E.g. Activity – Ice Skating Skill - Jumps

In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill

From each where the performer must have a dynamic centre

of gravity.


Centre of gravity1
Centre of Gravity

Performers can make themselves more stable in 5 ways.

Explain why stability is needed in each of the following activities.

The more you lean into

an oncoming force the

more stable you will be.

The lower your centre of

gravity the more stable you will be.

The heavier you are the more stable you are.

The closer your COG is to the

centre of your

base the more

stable you will

be.

The larger the

area of your base

the more stable

you will be


Transfer of weight
Transfer of Weight

Many activities involve a transfer of weight from the back foot to the front. A

transfer of weight in this direction adds more force, speed and distance into the

movement. A long backward motion and follow through increases this.

Basketball players will transfer weight from their back foot to

the front when they chest pass. This transfer of weight adds

speed to the pass.

In your jotter select any activity and passing as the skill, you

may use Basketball. Explain in detail why fast passing may

be required in a game.

The striking and fielding games require a transfer of

weight from the back to front foot.

In your jotter, in detail explain why.


Transfer of weight1
Transfer of Weight

In your jotter, describe in detail the transfer of weight which occurs during this performance.

During a vault weight

is transferred from the

feet to the hands and

then back to the feet.

In your jotter write

down another activity

and skill which has a

similar transfer of

weight.

In your jotter select a skill/technique from this

activity. Describe how improving the weight

transfer would improve the performance.


Levers equipment
Levers - Equipment

Many activities require long or short levers. One example of a long lever is

and one example of a short lever is

Long levers are used to gain speed and distance.

the longer the lever the greater the distance and

speed of the lever at the end.

Short levers are easier to

control, and can be used to

teach skills to beginners.

Longer levers are more difficult to control.

In your jotter write down 2 examples of a long lever and 2 examples of a short lever.

Select one example from each and describe how the lever was used for effective

performance.


Levers
Levers

Parts of the human body can be used to act as long levers. E.g.

During a game of volleyball to serve and spike the arm can

be used as a lever. Straightening the arm to make a long

lever adds distance and speed. When the ball is played with

speed it is difficult to return, players use this skill to try and

win points and the game.

In your jotter select another example of a skill when a part

of the body is used to make a long lever.

Describe how you used this lever when performing the skill.

Describe the actions you took to maintain control when using the long lever.


Friction
Friction

In many activities friction can be an advantage, E.g.

A footballer will wear studs to increase the friction between his boots

and the ground, this will allow him to apply maximum force when turning

or running.

In your jotter write down 2 more examples of friction helping performance.

In many activities friction can be a disadvantage, E.g.

A speed skater will ensure that the blades of their skates

are as smooth and sharp as possible. Friction occurring

between ice and skate will slow the competitor down.

In your jotter write down 2 more examples where friction could be a disadvantage.


Resistance
Resistance

Resistance is a force that slows down or opposes another force. Both air and water

create resistance for athletes and competitors.

In your jotter select an activity where water is a resistance and why.

In your jotter select an activity where wind/air is a resistance and why.

Competitors try to gain vital second in races by reducing air and water resistance.

One way to do this is by changing body shape. A STREAMLINED body shape

will encounter less resistance and therefore travel faster.

In you jotter

explain how a

cyclist can make

their body shape

more streamlined.

In your jotter

explain how a

swimmer can make their body shape more streamlined.


Resistance1
Resistance

Changing shape during a rotation will alter the

speed of the skill.

In your jotter write down how this skill could be performed faster.

As well as changing shape to reduce DRAG and

resistance, competitors will use other means to cut

down air and water resistance. E.g The Helmet.

In your jotter write down 2 different pieces of

Equipment/clothing used by competitors to reduce

resistance.


Force
Force

In many activities you use force to overcome resistance.

the sprinter uses the staring blocks to push back against

and travel forwards. If the blocks slipped the sprinter

could not apply the same force .

In your jotter write down the activities below, the direction of the force and the

direction of the movement.

In your jotter explain how resistance can be an advantage in an activity by allowing

a performer to create a force.


Force1
Force

Force is used to overcome resistance. A

swimmer uses the force from their arms

legs to overcome the resistance of the water.

In your jotter write down another example of a competitor who uses force to

overcome a resistance.