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Forest Pests. Forestry & Society Fall 2003 J.G. Mexal. Forestry & Society Trees Live A Long Time /PNW,2000. Lifespan (yrs). Forestry & Society Forest Health /PNW,2000.

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Forest pests l.jpg

Forest Pests

Forestry & Society

Fall 2003

J.G. Mexal


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Forestry & SocietyTrees Live A Long Time/PNW,2000

Lifespan (yrs)


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Forestry & SocietyForest Health/PNW,2000

“A healthy forest can renew itself vigorously across the landscape, recover from a wide range of disturbances, and retain its ecological resilience while meeting current and future needs of people for values, uses, products, and services.”

USDA Forest Service, 1997


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Forestry & SocietyPest Outbreak Triangle/PNW,2000


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-

  • Exotic Pests

  • Native Pests

  • NM Pests


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-

Pest Species Migration

  • 1869: Gypsy moth – Asia?-- E. Hardwoods

  • 1898: White pine blister rust -- Europe to Idaho to NM -SW white pine

  • 1904: Chestnut blight -- Japan –

    American chestnut (50% mortality by 1930)

  • 1929: Dutch Elm Disease -- Europe –

    American Elm (77 million killed in 20th century)

  • 1980s: Asian long-horn beetle -- China – E. hardwoods

  • 1990s: Pinewood nematode -- Japan -- Western conifers


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American chestnut-

Original Distribution

  • Occupied 25% of Appalachian hardwood forest

  • Largest DBH = 17 ft

  • Japanese chestnut imported by Bronx Zoo in 1904

  • Not TES because of stump sprouts

  • Susceptible to P. cinnamoni


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Forest PestsChestnut Blight - Dryphonectria parasitica

  • From Japan 1904

  • Eliminated American chestnut from eastern deciduous forests.

  • Annual lost timber value for 3 states of $683.9 million (1999 dollars).

  • Caused declines in chestnut-dependant wildlife and erosion where lost trees have not been replaced.


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American chestnut- a comeback?

Original Distribution


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Forest PestsWhite Pine Blister Rust Cronartium ribicola

1920

1925

1935

Current

Forest @ risk

Late 1800’s throughout range of eastern white pine and

early 1900’s in 6 western. Killing pines in western high elevation ecosystems, eliminating wildlife forage; affecting soil stability, snowmelt.


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Historic

Current

Forest PestsWhite Pine Blister Rust Spread


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Dutch Elm Disease- Ophiostoma ulmi

  • Discovered in 1930 from Europe

  • Occurs in most states. Killed more than 60% of elms in urban settings.

  • A more virulent U.S. strain evolved and has caused significant impacts in Europe.


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Gypsy moth

Millions of Acres

  • Lymantria dispar brought to

  • Boston, MA in 1869 for silk

  • industry .

  • Infests 15 states in NE US

  • Feeds on oak, sugar maple,

  • beech and aspen

Year


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Gypsy moth found in Travis Co., TX/2005

  • In 19 states, spot infests 12 more.

  • Annually defoliates millions of northeastern and Midwestern forested acres;

  • Suppression costs tens of millions.

  • Record losses in 1981: 13 million acres defoliated; $3.9 billion (1998 dollars) in losses.

Asian gypsy moths such as this male, left, and female attack more than 500 plant species.


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Forestry & SocietyEmerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

Could cause elimination of ash as a street, shade, and forest tree nationwide at an estimated cost of $282 billion.

Imported from Asia

Infested Canada, MI (1999) & OH & MD

Killed 6kk trees in MI alone (2002-2004)

David Cappaert


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Forestry & SocietyEmerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

D.G. McCullough, Tree Farmer (Mar/Apr 2006)

  • Discovered in 2002

  • All ash species susceptible

  • 12-15kk ash trees killed in central MI by 2006

  • Threatens 8kkk forest trees (valued @ $282 billion)

  • Threatens 3.8kkk urban trees

Photos by David Cappaert


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Exotic Pests

  • Emerald Ash borer:

    • Established in Michigan in 2002

    • Established in Ohio in 2003

    • Established in Indiana in 2004

    • Established in Illinois in 2006

      • Area = 40,000 square miles

      • 3 billion trees vulnerable

      • Removal & replacement costs ~ $7 billion


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http://www.invasivespecies.gov

Joseph O'Brien

Forest PestsSudden Oak Death = Phytophthoraramorum

  • Discovered in 1994 in CA

  • In 2005, spread to OR, WA, GA, LA, TN, SC

  • In 2006, found in 22 states

  • 84 susceptible species in US

    • Calif. black oak

    • White fir

    • Calif. red fir

    • Coastal redwoods

    • Coast live oak

    • Douglas-fir

    • Madrone

    • Tanoak

  • Could devastate oak forests nationwide.


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Balsam Woolly Adelgid/ PNW,2000

Native to Western Europe

Discovered on West Coast

in 1929

(Adelges piceae) 1908 Attacks true fir species. Caused dramatic declines in Fraser fir in

Great Smoky Mountains National Park, resulting in understory and

wildlife changes.

Subalpine fir 1965


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Hemlock Woolly Adelgid/

(Adelges tsugae) 1920’s from Asia. Currently in more than 4 states. Contributing to decline of eastern and Carolina hemlocks. Alters bird communities where it kills eastern hemlock.


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Asian Longhorned Beetle

Photos by M. Smith


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Forestry & SocietyPine Knot Nematode on Scots Pine

Pinus sylvestris

  • Native to Japan

  • Discovered in 1979 in MO

  • Carried by pine sawyer beetle

  • No control

Nebraska Forestry Service


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SNC Aerial Survey /Greg Filip1996 1997


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Weeds Science Findings 38/Oct’01

  • SE

    kudzu

    cogongrass

  • NW

    English ivy

    Holly

    Scots broom

    Himalayan blackberry

    Sweet cherry


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Weeds Science Findings 38/Oct’01

  • SE

    kudzu

    cogongrass

  • NW

    English ivy

    Holly

    Scots broom

    Himalayan blackberry

    Sweet cherry


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Weeds Science Findings 38/Oct’01

  • SE

    kudzu

    cogongrass

  • NW

    English ivy

    Holly

    Scots broom

    Himalayan blackberry

    Sweet cherry


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Weeds

Yellow starthistle competes with mariposa lily

PNW Sci. Update 9:2:Mar’05


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Forestry & SocietyExotic Pests/Weeds Science Findings 38/Oct’01

Cover (%) after 3 yrs

2nd Growth Douglas-fir

VDT creates

openings for

invasion by

exotics

VDT = Variable density thinning

Treatment


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-

  • Exotic Pests

  • Native Pests

  • NM Pests


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Forest PestsMountain Pine Beetle

  • British Columbia

  • Started in 1998

    • Attacked Lodgepole pine

    • Area = 9 kk ha

    • Value = $9kkk

  • 2007:

    • Area = 15,000,000 ha

    • Volume = 530 kk m3

    • Value = $38 kkk

    • 40% of BC pine forest

Ministry of Forests

1 m3 = 1 telephone pole


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Forest PestsMountain Pine Beetle

Will climate change spell the end of forests in North America?

A warmer climate allows the beetle to migrate north and potentially east and then south!!!



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Forest PestsSpruce Bark Beetle J. For. 104(5):254:’06

  • Beetle-killed spruce in Alaska

  • Over 1 million acres destroyed (90% mortality)


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Bark beetle outbreaks in Texas/ SJAF 27(2):122:2003

Infested Acres

Chemical control

does not work! It’s

too late!


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Forest PestsBillboard in Florida/ J. For. 104(5):241:2006


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Western Spruce Budworm

Millions of Acres

Choristoneura occidentalis

is native to Rocky Mountains.

Feeds on Douglas-fir and

true firs.

Year


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Oak Wilt

  • Oak wilt = Ceratocystis fagacearum

    • oaks (Quercus)-- 36 species

    • chestnuts (Castanea)

    • chinkapins (Castanopsis)

    • tanoak (Lithocarpus)

Discovered

in 1995

J.For. 99(5):4:’01


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Oak Wilt

J.For. 99(5):4:’01

Healthy

Dead


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-Oak Wilt in Texas

Cost ($1,000s)

Acres

10000

6000

2000

Year

J.For. 99(5):4:’01


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Red-Headed Pine Sawfly

  • Enemy of young pine plantations

  • Usually completely defoliates a tree before crawling to the next

  • Destroys trees because there is more than one generation of eggs laid


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests-USFS Expenditures

  • Insects

    • Gypsy moth $3.8 million

    • Mtn pine beetle $1.1 million

    • So. pine beetle $ 315,000

    • Hemlock woolly adelgid $ 116,000

    • Ips beetle $ 42,000

    • Spruce beetle $ 10,000

  • Weeds $ 285,000

  • Disease (oak wilt) $ 270,000

J.For. 99(5):4:’01


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests in New Mexico

  • Bark beetles

    • Dendroctonus – Ips

    • Twig beetle

  • Wood borers

    • Roundhead – Flathead

  • Mistletoe

    • True (Phoradendron)

    • Dwarf (Arceuthobium)

  • Western Spruce budworm

  • Tent caterpillar

  • Cytospora canker (aspen and willows)

  • Douglas-fir tussock moth

  • White pine blister rust


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Forestry & Society Forest Pests- Review Questions

  • Describe the pest outbreak triangle

  • Why and how do these exotic pests get introduced and started?

  • What are the major forest pests in the US? In NM?

  • How are they controlled? Does it make sense? Why?


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