Download
chapter 25 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 25 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 25

113 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 25

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 25 WWII

  2. Nationalism and the Good Neighbor Policy • “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.” • U.S. withdraws troops from Haiti and the Dominican • Renounce the Platt Amendment • Reduce role in Panamanian affairs • Provide indirect aid to Batista in Cuban revolt • Lower a tariff on sugar cane and

  3. Rise of Aggressive States • Mussolini • Ethiopia • Hitler • Conscription and military buildup • The Rhineland • Austrian Anchluss • Munich Pact • Sudetenland • Imperial Japan • Manchuria • China proper

  4. The American Mood: No More War • Nye Committee and the “merchants of death” • Proposed War Referendum Amendment (Louis Ludlow of Indiana) • Neutrality Acts (1935, 1937) • No weapons sold to belligerents • No Americans on belligerents ships • No loans to belligerents • 1936 Olympics – Owens wins four golds • 1938 – Joe Louis defeats Max Schmeling

  5. The Gathering Storm: 1938-39 • Munich Pact was a disaster • 1939 – Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact • After Czechoslovakia falls • All action “short of war” • Asks Hitler and Mussolini not to invade any more • FDR asks Congress for $300 million in military appropriations • 20,000 plans in the Army Air Corps • 1939 budget - $1.3 billion for defense

  6. America and the Jewish Refugees • Nuremberg Laws of 1935 • Outlaws marriage and sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews • Jews stripped of German citizenship • Restrictions on Jews in education, social, and political life • 1938 – Kristallnacht • Refugees – • Though many came and benefited the U.S. in the field of science many were turned away • St. Louis was turned back

  7. The European War • Germany demanded the Danzig and the Polish Corridor • Invaded Poland • FDR did not ask Americans to be impartial in thought or deed • Amending of the Neutrality Acts • Cash and Carry

  8. From Isolation to Intervention • FDR wins reelection • Appoints republicans as Sec. of War (Henry Stimson) and Sec. of Navy (Frank Knox) • Signs the Selective Service and Training Act – America’s first peacetime draft • Bases for Destroyers deal with Britain • Lend Lease Program approved (even to USSR) • America creates a “great arsenal of democracy” • US convoys assist the British in the Atlantic • Atlantic Charter and the “Four Freedoms” and the post war goals • Reuben James and the arming of merchant ships and their entry to belligerent ports in war zones • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrZjJsIA1EI

  9. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War • Japan seeks a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere • U.S. attitudes towards the Japanese – years of the “yellow peril” • U.S. bans the sale of aviation fuel and scrap metal to the Japanese • The Dutch and French can’t hold on to there Asian possessions • U.S. freezes Japanese assets and places an all-out trade embargo on Japan • Dec. 7, 1941 • 20 ships; 350 aircraft 2,400+ dead; 1,200 wounded • The awakening of a sleeping giant - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3e99lfmmDN0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQm_I3GpaGM

  10. Organizing for Victory • FDR forms the Joint Chiefs of Staff • Office of Strategic Services is created • War Production Board allocates materials, limits production and distributes contracts • War Manpower Commission supervises the mobilization of men and women • National War Labor Board mediates disputes • Office of Price Administration rations scare product and imposes price controls

  11. Office of War Mobilization coordinates the production, procurement, transportation and distribution of civilian and military supplies • Industry conversions and new technologies • Auto manufacturers make tanks • 50 new synthetic rubber plants are created • Alliance between the defense industry and the military • 10 biggest companies got a third of the war contracts • Dr. New Deal becomes Dr. Win the War

  12. The War Economy • U.S. spent $320 billion to defeat the Axis Powers (10x more than in WWI) • 17 million new jobs; increased corporate after-tax profits by 70%; raised purchasing power of industrial workers by 50% • $40 billion went to the West (California got 10% of the funds) • South’s industrial capacity increased by 40% • Middle-class nation was emerging • Factories hired the deaf and dwarfs

  13. Large-scale commercial farmers prospered due to higher consumer prices and increased productivity • Labor union membership leaped from 9 million to almost 15 million in five years • NWLB’s “maintenance-of –membership” rule • Only a tiny minority of workers broke the no strike rule – wildcat strikes • The Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act of 1943 allowed the President to take over any facility where strikes interrupted the war effort • OPA institutes rationing

  14. Revenue Act of 1942 raised top income tax rate from 60 to 94% and imposed taxes on the middle class and lower income Americans for the first time • In 1943 payroll deductions automatically withheld taxes from wages and salaries

  15. A Wizard War • The importance of wartime scientific and technological development • Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) – spent $1 billion to generate sonar and radar devices, rocket weapons, and bomb fuses: helps create lasers, transistors and semiconductors • Earliest computers are created: Mark I and ENIAC • Improvements in blood transfusions, heart and lung surgeries, and synthetic drugs; antibiotics produced like crazy • MASH units • Manhattan Project – University of Chicago; Oak Ridge, TN; Hanford, WA; Los Alamos, NM • Used 120,000 people and $2 billion • July 16, 1945 – it works!

  16. Propaganda and Politics • Office of Censorship – examined letters • A year passed before death and damage figures were released concerning Pearl Harbor • Govt. banned publication of photographs of American war dead until 1943 • Office of War Information (OWI) – employed artists, writers and advertising specialists to promote the war