understanding operating systems fifth edition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 59

Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 311 Views
  • Uploaded on

Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition. Chapter 16 Linux Operating System. Learning Objectives. The design goals for the Linux operating system The significance of using files to manipulate devices The differences between command-driven and menu-driven interfaces

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition' - monifa


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
understanding operating systems fifth edition

Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition

Chapter 16Linux Operating System

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • The design goals for the Linux operating system
  • The significance of using files to manipulate devices
  • The differences between command-driven and menu-driven interfaces
  • The roles of the Memory, Device, File, Processor, and Network Managers
  • Some strengths and weaknesses of Linux

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

overview
Overview
  • POSIX-compliant
  • Portable
    • Versions for cell phones, supercomputers, and computing systems in between
  • Source code: freely available
    • Configurable: run any device, meet any specification
  • User interface
    • Powerful desktop GUIs attracts users
  • Highly modular
    • Multiple modules load and unload on demand
      • Technically robust operating system

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

history
History
  • Developed by Linus Torvalds (1991)
  • Original purpose
    • Maximize Intel 80386 microprocessor’s limited capabilities
    • Roots
      • Minix: miniature UNIX with more functionality
  • First version meant for small microcomputer
    • Expensive commercial computer features
      • Flexibility and functionality
    • Brought UNIX features to small computer

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

history continued
History (continued)
  • Open-source program
    • Updates accepted from anyone
  • User interface
    • Originally typed and cryptic commands
    • Today
      • Command-driven interface (Terminal mode)
      • Graphical user interface (GUI)
  • Red Hat Linux provided initial primary support
    • World’s leading Linux distributor (until 2003)
  • GNU General Public License

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

history continued1
History (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

design goals
Design Goals
  • Three goals
    • Modularity
    • Simplicity
    • Portability
  • Numerous standard utilities
    • Eliminates need to write special code
    • Used in combination for specific tasks
  • Numerous functions
  • Conforms to IEEE POSIX specifications
    • Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

design goals continued
Design Goals (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management
Memory Management
  • Space allocation
    • Kernel: 1 GB high order memory
    • Executing processes: 3 GB memory
  • Process execution
    • Segment fixed size
    • System calls change segment size
  • Memory protection
    • Based on information type stored in address space region for process

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management continued
Memory Management (continued)
  • Page loading
    • Least recently used algorithm (LRU)
    • Maintains a dynamically managed memory area and page cache (new and old pages inserted and deleted)
  • System page tables
    • Tracks free and busy pages
  • Virtual memory
    • Managed using multiple-level table hierarchy
      • 64- and 32-bit architectures
    • Added flexibility with swap devices
      • May deactivate without rebooting

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management continued1
Memory Management (continued)
  • Virtual memory managed using multiple-level table hierarchy
    • Four fields in virtual address

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management continued2
Memory Management (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management continued3
Memory Management (continued)
  • Buddy algorithm
    • Grouping and splitting equal-sized page frames
      • Give more contiguous space to job
  • Page replacement algorithm
    • Clock page replacement policy expanded version
    • Uses eight-bit byte to track page’s activity
      • Referred to as “age”

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

memory management continued4
Memory Management (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

processor management
Processor Management
  • Uses same parent-child process management design found in UNIX
  • “Personality” concept
    • Allow processes from other operating systems to be executed

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

organization of table of processes
Organization of Table of Processes
  • Descriptor: references process
  • Contains approximately 70 fields
    • Describes process attributes
      • Information needed to manage process
    • Dynamically allocated by kernel
      • Process execution time
    • Organized by doubly linked lists
      • “Next run” field
      • “Previously run” field
    • Scheduler manages and updates descriptors
      • Macros

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

process synchronization
Process Synchronization
  • Wait queues and semaphores
    • Synchronize two processes with each other
  • Wait queue
    • Linked circular list of process descriptors
    • Problems solved
      • Mutual exclusion and producers and consumers
  • Semaphore structure
    • Three fields (semaphore counter, number of waiting processes, list of processes waiting for semaphore)
      • Counter contains binary values
      • Except if several units of one resource available

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

process management
Process Management
  • Linux scheduler
    • Scans processes list in READY state
    • Chooses process to execute
      • Using predefined criteria
  • Three scheduling types
    • Real-time processes (two)
    • Normal processes (one)
  • Process scheduling policy determination
    • Combination of type and priority

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

process management continued
Process Management (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

process management continued1
Process Management (continued)
  • First type
    • Highest priority (SCHED_FIFO)
      • First in, first out algorithm
    • Not preemptible
    • Runs to completion unless:
      • Process goes into WAIT state
      • Process relinquishes processor voluntarily
    • All FIFO processes complete
      • Scheduler processes lower priority types

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

process management continued2
Process Management (continued)
  • Second type
    • Medium priority (SCHED_RR)
      • Round robin algorithm with small time quantum
    • Time quantum expires
      • Other higher priority processes (FIFO, RR ) selected and executed
      • Before first process allowed to complete
  • Third type
    • Low priority (SCHED_OTHER)
    • Executed if no higher priority processes in READY queue

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device management
Device Management
  • Device independent
    • Improves portability
  • Device drivers
    • Supervise data transmission
      • Between main memory and peripheral unit
  • Devices assigned
    • Name
    • Descriptors
      • Further identify each device
      • Stored in device directory

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device management continued
Device Management (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device management continued1
Device Management (continued)
  • Device drivers
    • Comprehensive collection in Linux
  • Required driver not available
    • Obtain from another source
      • Install separately
    • Manually write the driver
      • Requires skilled programmer

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classifications
Device Classifications
  • Device identification
    • Minor device number
      • Passed to device driver as an argument
      • Accesses one of several identical physical devices
    • Major device number
      • Index to array to access appropriate code
  • Configuration table for each class
    • Entry point into driver
    • Only connection between system code and driver
    • Importance
      • Allows quick creation of device drivers

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device drivers
Device Drivers
  • Support for standard classes introduced by UNIX
  • Allow new device classes supporting new technology
  • Device classes not rigid
    • Create large, complex, multiple function drivers
    • Discouraged because:
      • Users share code, demand simple drivers
      • Modular code supports system scalability and extendibility goal
    • Encouraged: drivers maximizing system’s effective device usage

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device drivers continued
Device Drivers (continued)
  • Notable feature
    • Accept new device drivers on the fly
      • System up and running
      • No reboot necessary

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes
Device Classes
  • Three standard classes

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes continued
Device Classes (continued)
  • Character (char) devices
    • Accessed as a stream of bytes
      • Communications port, monitor, other byte-stream-fed device
    • Implement open, close, read, write system calls
    • Accessed by file system nodes
      • Look like ordinary data area
    • Drivers treated as ordinary files
      • Exception: drivers are data channels accessed sequentially

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes continued1
Device Classes (continued)
  • Block devices
    • Host a file system (hard disk)
    • Accessed by file system nodes in /dev directory
      • Transfer in blocks of data
    • Similarity to char driver
      • Appear as ordinary files
    • Dissimilarity to char driver
      • Access file system in connection with device (not possible with char device)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes continued2
Device Classes (continued)
  • Network interfaces
    • Function
      • Send and receive information packets
      • Directed by network subsystem
    • Network device functions
      • Relate to packet transmission
      • Not read and write calls
      • Dissimilar from block and char
  • System device handled by device driver
    • Under direction of Linux subsystem

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes continued3
Device Classes (continued)
  • Open and release
    • Allocate and deallocate the appropriate device
    • Open operation example
      • Verify device available and working
      • Increase device usage counter by one (subsystem knows module cannot be unloaded until file appropriately closed)
      • Initialize device so old data is removed and device ready to accept new data
      • Identify minor number and update appropriate pointer (if necessary)
      • Allocate appropriate data structure

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

device classes continued4
Device Classes (continued)
  • Open and release (continued)
    • Release operation example
      • Deallocate resources allocated with open function
      • Shut down device
      • Reduce usage counter by one (device released to another module)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

file management
File Management
  • Data structures
  • Filename conventions
  • Directory listings

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

data structures
Data Structures
  • Files organized in directories
    • Connected in treelike structure
  • Five file types

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

filename conventions
Filename Conventions
  • Case sensitive
    • Recognizes uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Up to 255 characters long
  • Contain alphabetic characters, underscores, numbers
  • File suffixes: optional
  • Can include space
    • Complications if running command-line programs
  • Uses file hierarchy
    • First slash indicates an absolute path name

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

filename conventions continued
Filename Conventions (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

filename conventions continued1
Filename Conventions (continued)
  • Path name rules
    • Path name starting with slash (at root directory)
    • Path name
      • One name or list of names separated by slashes
    • Last name on list
      • Name of file requested
      • Preceding names must be directory names
    • Two periods (..) in path name
      • Move upward in hierarchy (closer to root)
      • Only way to go up hierarchy
      • Other path names go down tree

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

filename conventions continued2
Filename Conventions (continued)
  • Data structures: Virtual File System (VFS)
    • Kernel
      • Allows processes to access files in a consistent manner
      • Maintains interface between file related system calls and file management code
    • Virtual file system layer
      • Receives process-initiated system call to files
      • Performs file operations
      • Independent of file system format
      • Redirects request to module managing file

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings
Directory Listings
  • Creation
    • ls or ls -l command
    • GUI interface
  • Displays:
    • File or directory name
    • Size
    • Modification date and time
  • Permissions column
    • Code: file’s type and access privileges
    • Order of letters indicates the specific access granted

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued
Directory Listings (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued1
Directory Listings (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued2
Directory Listings (continued)
  • First column character: nature of folder entry
    • Dash (-) indicates a file
    • d indicates a directory file
    • l indicates a link
    • b indicates a block special file
    • c indicates a character special file
  • Next three characters (rwx): file owner privileges
    • r indicates read access
    • w indicates write access
    • x indicates execute access

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued3
Directory Listings (continued)
  • Next three characters
    • Group access privileges
      • Group: set of users, excluding owner, having something in common (project, class, department)
      • System-wide group of users: “world”
  • Last three characters
    • Access privileges granted to “others”
      • Others: users at large (excluding owner and group member)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued4
Directory Listings (continued)
  • Change file security
    • Owner (and only the owner) opens file properties to be protected
      • File-Properties from the File menu
    • Click on Permissions tab
    • Choose the appropriate access
      • For owner, group, others

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

directory listings continued5
Directory Listings (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

user interface
User Interface
  • Early Linux versions
    • Required typed commands
      • Thorough knowledge of valid commands required
  • Current versions
    • Include powerful and intuitive GUI desktops
      • Novice user can use successfully
    • Navigate operating system
    • Can still use Terminal mode
      • Type commands similar to those used for UNIX

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

command driven interfaces
Command-Driven Interfaces
  • Typed command general syntax
    • command arguments filename
  • Command: legal operating system command
  • Arguments: required or optional
  • Filename: filename
    • Relative or absolute path name
  • Shell (bash shell)
    • Command interpreter
    • Interprets and executes command
    • Key to system program coordination and combination

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

command driven interfaces continued
Command-Driven Interfaces (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

graphical user interfaces
Graphical User Interfaces
  • Multiple graphical user interfaces (often free)
    • Allowing choice for end users
    • Different GUIs used by different users on same system (certain environments)
    • Flexibility
    • Spurring Linux acceptance
  • Sophisticated Windows-compatible word processors, spreadsheet, presentation applications (some at no cost)
    • Spurring Linux popularity

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

system monitor
System Monitor
  • System Monitor window
    • System well-being information
    • Immediate history
      • CPU, memory, network usage
  • Other information
    • Supported file systems
    • Currently running processes information

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

system monitor continued
System Monitor (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

service settings
Service Settings
  • Variety of services help manage system
    • Linux distribution dependent (see documentation)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

system logs
System Logs
  • System logs
    • Provide detailed description of activity on system
    • Invaluable to administrators
      • Tracking system malfunction
      • Firewall failure
      • Disabled device
    • Found in /var/log directory
    • System log viewer to see data

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

system logs continued
System Logs (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

keyboard shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcuts
  • Users easily switch from one task to another
  • Keyboard shortcuts
    • Many identical to commonly used Windows operating systems’ shortcuts
      • Ease operating system transition
    • Example: CTRL-V
      • Quick way to issue PASTE command
      • Linux, UNIX, and Windows

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

keyboard shortcuts continued
Keyboard Shortcuts (continued)

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition

summary
Summary
  • Originally designed to gain more microcomputer chip power
    • Evolved into powerful, flexible operating system
      • Runs supercomputers, cell phones, many devices
  • Unparalleled popularity among programmers
    • Contribute standard code set enhancements
  • Supports broad range of applications
    • Available for minimal cost and easy to install
    • Growing acceptance among non-programmers
  • Large organizations
    • Commercial Linux products available

Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition