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Part 2 Gender and HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS IS A GENDER ISSUE BECAUSE: I Although HIV effects both men and women , women are more vulnerable because of biological, social, religious and economic factors. Gender and HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS global reports 2010

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part 2 gender and hiv aids
Part 2Gender and HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS IS A GENDER ISSUE BECAUSE:

I Although HIV effects both men and women, women are more vulnerable because of biological, social, religious and economic factors.

gender and hiv aids
Gender and HIV/AIDS

According to UNAIDS global reports 2010

  • In 2002, 46% of 33.4 million adults living with HIV/AIDS were women.
  • 55% of the 16,000 new infections occurring daily are women.
gender and hiv aids1
Gender and HIV/AIDS
  • A trend observed in some countries the male to female ratio among HIV infected persons has begun to equalise.
  • In fact in some of the worst affected countries, women outnumber men.

Bottom line:

In sub-Saharan Africa women increasingly make up the majority of People living with HIV/AIDS.

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Gender and HIV/AIDS

What is the number of women living with HIV/AIDS in your country?

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Gender and HIV/AIDS

II The rapidity of the spread of HIV/AIDS among women can be slowed only if changes are brought in the sexual behaviour of men.

  • A behaviour study commissioned by USAID in India shows that 82% of the male STI patients had sexual intercourse with multiple partners within 12 months and only 12 percent had used a condom.
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Gender and HIV/AIDS
  • A study of female youth in South Africa showed that 71% of the girls had experienced sex against their will.
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Gender and HIV/AIDS

III feminized poverty and women’s limited voice in decision-making

  • Poverty pushes some women into sex industry.
  • Young girls are particularly vulnerable and they often have no power to insist on safer sex.
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Gender and HIV/AIDS
  • Lack of education for girls results in low exposure to HIV/AIDS education messages due to low literacy rate.
  • The burden of care for sick family members falls on women in the family.
gbv and hiv aids
GBV and HIV/AIDS

What is the link between HIV/AIDS and GBV?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Low power in relationship and intimate partner violence increase the risk of HIV infection incident.
  • Forced sex is correlated to HIV risk.
  • Survivors of violence tend to engage in behaviors that put their health at risk.
  • Proposing condom use may increase women’s risk of violence.
  • Disclosing HIV status may increase risk of violence and abuse.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

Why should Health/HIV

project address GBV?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • GBV is a major cause of death and disability among women.
  • Health project can be more effective if it recognizes reproductive health (RH) implications of GBV.
  • Health providers who do not ask about gender-based violence may misdiagnose survivors or offer inappropriate care.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Providers may be the first point of contact for women.
  • Providers can assist women, rather than inadvertently putting women at further risk.
  • Healthcare organizations can raise awareness of GBV as a public health problem.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

Use a “systems approach,” which entails:

  • An institutional commitment to GBV
  • Sexual harassment policies
  • Patient privacy and confidentiality
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Awareness of local GBV laws
  • Ongoing training and support for staff
  • Referral networks to link survivors to legal aid, counselling, shelters, etc.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Protocols for the care of survivors.
  • Emergency supplies such as STI prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and emergency contraception (EC), where supported by the government.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Educational materials on GBV for clients
  • Data collection systems
  • Monitoring and evaluation of quality of care
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

How can Health/HIV project address GBV?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS

Support efforts to fully integrate attention to GBV within existing health programs, such as

  • Long-term efforts to sensitize and train health professionals about GBV;
  • “Routine screening” or “routine enquiry” policies ONLY when programs have basic protections for women; and
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Participation of healthcare organizations in broader prevention efforts, referral networks, advocacy campaigns.
  • Do not duplicate services that already exist.
  • Health programs should try to identify the most economically feasible, cost-effective, and sustainable social services to provide.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

Why should Health Policy project address GBV?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Assist in drafting policies and approaches for the health service response to GBV.
  • Reframe the policy debate about GBV as a public health and human rights issue.
  • Produce and use research on magnitude of GBV to convince policymakers that
  • They should address GBV; and
  • Gaps exist in the legal and civil codes.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Standardize health sector policies and appropriate GBV interventions at the institutional level.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

How can Health Policy project address GBV?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Research and dissemination of GBV findings
  • Public and private coalitions that design and implement GBV public policy approaches
  • Efforts to educate key groups and broader population about GBV as a public health problem and the linkage to HIV/AIDS
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

Why is it important working with Youth in addressing GBV and HIV/AIDS?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Substantial proportions of girls and young women experience sexual violence around the world.
  • Violence by intimate partners often begins within the first years of dating and marriage.
  • Sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence has been linked to numerous poor health consequences.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Youth sexual activity is not always voluntary or consensual.
  • Youth programs are an ideal opportunity to further GBV prevention because attitudes gender and violence are still forming.
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GBV and HIV/AIDS

How can Youth work address GBV and HIV/AIDS?

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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Require all reproductive health programming for youth to address sexual coercion and abuse
  • Support initiatives that improve family, peer, and community environments, such as
  • Efforts to promote gender-equitable norms and non-violence among young men
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GBV and HIV/AIDS
  • Efforts to empower girls.
  • Efforts to improve the institutional response to young survivors of GBV.
  • Efforts to increase safety of girls and young women in educational settings.