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How the Media Works. Miguel Navrot, Tierna Unruh-Enos & Rick DeReyes. Local Media. Five Television Stations KRQE/KASA (CBS) – 13/2 KOB (NBC) – 4 KOAT (ABC) – 7 KNME (PBS) -5 KLUZ (Spanish Univision) – 41 Two Daily Newspapers Albuquerque Journal Daily Lobo Several Weekly Newspapers

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How the media works

How the Media Works

Miguel Navrot, Tierna Unruh-Enos & Rick DeReyes


Local media
Local Media

  • Five Television Stations

    • KRQE/KASA (CBS) – 13/2

    • KOB (NBC) – 4

    • KOAT (ABC) – 7

    • KNME (PBS) -5

    • KLUZ (Spanish Univision) – 41

  • Two Daily Newspapers

    • Albuquerque Journal

    • Daily Lobo

  • Several Weekly Newspapers

    • The Alibi

    • El Semenario

    • New Mexico Business Weekly

  • Several News Radio Stations

    • KKOB

    • KUNM

  • One Monthly Magazine

    • Albuquerque the Magazine


Television organization
Television Organization

  • Each newsroom is managed by a news director

  • The assignment editor controls the stories and who covers what.

  • Each station has about 5-10 reporters.

  • The majority of reporters are general assignment reporters.


The desk
The “Desk”

  • The Desk is manned about 24/7 by an assignment editor or a producer.

  • Majority of calls go through the Desk.

  • The desk has:

    • Three police scanners

    • Several televisions to watch the other stations

    • Assignment Board


Newscasts
Newscasts

  • All Stations have a morning, evening and late night newscast

  • Two stations have a noon newscast.

  • Scripts are supposed to be written about an hour before the newscast. But breaking news, late reporters, inexperience, etc. can factor in.


Anchors
Anchors

  • Anchors sometimes work on stories or write copy.

  • Often work on something called an “anchor package,” shot solo by a photographer or a sweeps piece

  • Anchors are among the most well paid people in the news organization

  • Some can make more than $100,000 a yr.


Television reporters
Television Reporters

  • Along with videographers are the workhorses of the organization

  • Are required to come up with at least one story a day

  • Some are required to have as many as three stories a day.

  • Have very little time to do their stories.

  • Average life span is 2 to 3 years

  • In Albuquerque, almost all are working to get to a larger market (i.e., Phoenix, Denver, Dallas, etc.)


Television investigative reporters
Television Investigative Reporters

  • Sometimes can have several days or weeks to work on a story…often, pressured to produce a story in a day or two

  • Can be more experienced or have been in the market longer

  • Are looking for:

    • Scandal

    • Waste

    • Abuse

    • Corruption

  • Rarely do positive/”fluff” stories.


Tv brass
TV Brass

  • Two of the three stations are owned by a national corporation such as Hearst and Emmis.

  • Goal: Turn A Profit.

  • General Manager is the top local official.

  • News Director runs the newsroom

  • Assistant News Director makes details happen

  • Executive Producers run the shows.

  • Assignment Editors manage the daily content.

    • Make sure everyone is doing what they are suppose to do.


Resources
Resources

  • Local television stations have bureaus in Santa Fe and Roswell (frequently, one-man band)

  • Trucks that can broadcast live by being able to point a microwave antenna at the top of Sandia

  • Have at least one satellite truck that can go live anywhere in the world

  • One station has a helicopter on site and a full time pilot.

  • KOB & KRQE share a helicopter based at Double Eagle.


Nielsen ratings
Nielsen Ratings

  • Occur four times a year

  • Referred to as “the book” or “sweeps”

  • Determines how much television stations can charge for advertising

  • Are monitored on a daily basis

  • Television news is extremely competitive.

  • Month long investigations are rolled out.

  • Every one in the organization is expected to have a good “sweeps story”

  • Ratings mean everything – Jobs depend on it.

  • Crime/Fire drives 80 percent of the news coverage (stories easiest to get to/require little research/more visually interesting than meetings

    • “If it bleeds it leads”


Meetings deadlines
Meetings/Deadlines

  • There are two meetings a day –(9:30 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.) - attended by assignment editor, news director, executive producers, show producers and reporters

  • Meetings determine what stories they are going to run with and for what newscast


Checks
Checks

  • Reporters are given several areas or beats to check. They call PIOs and sources every day before the afternoon or morning meeting

  • Every morning all television stations send someone to Metro Court and they read the criminal complaints of everyone who was arrested the day before on felony charges.

  • Every afternoon they check search warrants at District Court.


Access
Access

  • All media has access to:

    • Jail Mugs

    • Criminal Complaints

    • Court Files

    • Police Reports

    • Business License

    • Tax records

    • Professional License

    • Salaries of public employees

    • Citizen Complaints filed with the IRO

    • Personnel Files


Daily newspaper organization
Daily Newspaper Organization

  • Each newspaper is managed by an executive editor

  • Paper is divided into desks and each desk has an editor

    • City Desk

    • State Desk

    • Business Desk

    • Sports Desk

  • Papers have several Bureaus that are also considered Desks. The Journal Has

    • Santa Fe

    • Rio Rancho

    • West Side

    • Las Cruces

    • State Capitol

    • Washington D.C.


Newspaper reporters
Newspaper Reporters

  • Unlike television, newspapers are very reporter driven

  • Journal has 40 reporters.

  • Newspaper reporters average lifespan is 10 years.

    • Half stay in one market for their entire career

  • Strict beats are adhered to. Average about three stories a week

  • Have more time to do stories and do more in-depth work.

  • They cover big crimes or events, issues and features, in depth work


Editorial board
Editorial Board

  • Every newspaper has an editorial board

  • Every day there is a staff editorial that is published.

  • Editorials are the newspaper’s opinion.

  • They take a position on controversial issues

  • Every day the board meets to discuss what they are going to editorialize

  • Most of the time editorials are written without any chance for one side to comment.

  • Editorial boards make political endorsements


Deadlines
Deadlines

  • Every morning, reporters are expected to notify their editors about potential stories.

  • Desk editors go to a meeting and talk. Reporters are not allowed.

  • By 4 p.m. reporters put what stories they have on a “budget.”

  • Editors meet at 4 p.m. to go over their budgets and determine what stories are going to go into the newspaper and where. Stories will hold.

  • Reporters must make these deadlines to meet the following editions:

  • 6 p.m. – Statewide

  • 11 p.m. – City/Final


Newspaper business model
Newspaper Business Model

  • Newspapers don’t have ratings

  • Ad rates are determined by circulation

  • Papers do not make money off of the sale of the newspaper. Sale covers cost of the paper

  • Money is made off of advertisements

  • Most papers in the country are owned by a large corporation like Gannett, Knight Rider, Times Tribune

  • Journal is one of the largest locally owned paper in the country

  • Journal has an owner who is from Albuquerque and is involved in the operation.


Newspaper resources
Newspaper Resources

  • Have the staff and money to send reporters to national events

  • Most newspapers have a Television partner in which they share photos, videos, resources and stories. Journal partners with KOAT


Newspaper brass
Newspaper Brass

  • Executive Editor is top decision maker.

  • Editorial Page editor holds a lot of power.

  • Desk editors make sure the beat reporters are doing their work.

  • Senior reporters have a lot of say and influence with the editors.


What makes a story
What Makes a Story

  • Timeliness

    • Did it happen recently

  • Proximity

    • Are readers/viewers effected

  • Significance

    • Are a lot of people effected

  • Prominence

    • Are famous people, politicians or people who hold the public trust involved

  • Human Interest

    • Is it different. Have you heard of anything like this before?

  • Television Key Demographic

    • Does it effect the people who are likely watching the news i.e. Hispanic women 35 to 49

  • Newspaper Agenda

    • Some newspapers have agendas that are priorities. The Journal has made DWI its top agenda.


Ethics newspapers
Ethics-Newspapers

  • All Journalists are supposed to adhere to a set of ethics

  • Newspaper reporters say ethics are much more strict than in other mediums

  • Newspaper reporters get in serious trouble when there is a “correction” in one of their stories

  • Most newspapers have an ethics guide journalists are supposed to sign.


Ethics broadcast news
Ethics-Broadcast News

  • Broadcasters have “Payola” clauses in their contracts

  • Broadcasters can do corrections during newscasts (placement of correction is very important)

  • Journalists are supposed to be fence walkers

  • Reporters are required to remove themselves from any conflict of interests