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The Role of Variety and International Trade on Regional Innovation. Sedef Akgüngör Yaprak Gülcan Mehmet Aldonat Beyzatlar. Outline. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Background 3. Hypotheses 4. Econometric Model 5. Empirical Results 6. Conclusion and Policy Implications.
The Role of Variety and International Trade on Regional Innovation Sedef Akgüngör Yaprak Gülcan Mehmet AldonatBeyzatlar
Outline • 1. Introduction • 2. Theoretical Background • 3. Hypotheses • 4.Econometric Model • 5. EmpiricalResults • 6. ConclusionandPolicyImplications
Introduction • Variety and international trade are two significant variables that explain regional innovativeness. • Innovation is a central process in driving economic growth through short run productivity gains and long run employment growth by creating new economic activities. • innovation draws on knowledge that is often sourced locally. • There is a wide and growing literature that treats innovations as an evolutionary branching process
Variety-Innovations • Variety: the number of actors, activities and objects required to describe an economic system. • Relatedvariety • Unrelatedvariety • Over the past decade, considerable number of academics examined the effect of related variety on regional growth by using different variables. • The studies found positive interaction between relatedness and growth in many case studies, such as Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey.
Variety-Innovations • Related variety and unrelated variety are both significant in explaining regional innovations (Castaldi, Frenlen and Los, 2013). • Related variety enhances innovations as related technologies are more easily recombined into new technologies. • Unrelated variety enhances technological breakthroughs since radical innovations stem from previously unrelated technologies opening up whole new functionalities and applications.
InternationalTrade-Innovations • International trade theory highlights the importance of technological innovations in explaining the country’s international competitiveness (Fagerberg, 1997). • Schumpeter points out that economic development are a dynamic process that derives from industry and trace. • New products, new ideas play significant roles in international trade. • Marquees-Ramos and Martinez Zarzoso, 2010 point our the importance of technical achievementon export performance. • Atkesenand Burstein (2010) point out the strong tie between firms’ welfare, innovation and international trade.
LongTermInternationalTradeTiesandInnovations • The impact of international trade on innovation presents the question of whether the influence of long term trade relationships is higher that overall impact of international trade on innovation. • The case of Turkey and Germany presents an interesting case study here. • Turkey and Germany are two nations with various political, military, economic, social, cultural and historical ties along the years. The relationship between Turkey and Germany has gained momentum within the framework of “Contract Labor Migration” that was signed by Turkey and Germany in 1961. • Densepolitical, economic and cultural relations between Turkey and Germany and long term trading relationship influences innovation. • ?????
Turkey-GermanyTradeTies • Germany is Turkey’s biggest trading partner in the EU. While the volume of trade between Turkey and the Germany was about 6 billion Euros in 1990, it has reached almost 24 billion Euros in 2009. • Germany, with more than 4.000 firms, is the biggest foreign investor in Turkey. Besides trade connections, the economic cooperation between two countries expands every day by various bilateral research and technology projects.
Objectives of theStudy • 1. Exploretheimpact of relatedvarietyandunrelatedvariety on regionalinnovations. • 2. Exploretheimpact of overallregionalinternationaltrade on regionalinnovations • 3.Understandtheimpact of long-tradetiesbetweentwocountries on regionalinnovativeness.
Theoretical Background • The theory follows the idea that international trade is not only trade of goods and services but it consists of movement of ideas and innovations. • Spulber(2008) presents a model where he contends that without international trade in technology, the country’s human capital is equal to population multiplied by base productivity. • When international trade occurs, the human capital increases by the amount of technology.
The model developed by Spulber (2010) show that innovation and international trade together play an important role in domestic markets where technology trade increases product variety and increases national income in each country and increases total gains from trade. • Similar idea has also presented by different scholars where the idea is that technological innovations and international trade go parallel in regions and countries (Egger and Keuschnigg, 2011; Damijan and Kostevc, 2010).
Theconcept of recumbinantinnovationcontendsthatrelatedvarietyandunrelatedvarietyenhancesinnovations in twodistinctways. • Recumbinantinnovation vs. branchinginnovation • Branchinginnovationsrefertotechnologicalimprovementsalong a particularpath • Recumbinantinnovationsrefertofusions of multiplepaths. • Recumbinantinnovationscreateshortcuts (facilitatelearningandknowledgeexchange) allowingagentstoescapefromtechnologicallock in..
Hypotheses • Thetheory on innovationsandtradeandthetheory on recombinantinnovationsleadstothefollowingthreehypotheses: • Hypothesis 1: There is a positive relationship between international trade and regional innovativeness • Hypothesis 2: The impact of international trade on regional innovativeness increases when international trade ties are between the partner countries is higher than average. • Hypothesis 3: There is a positive relationship between related variety and regional innovativeness.
Data • Dependentvariable: Innovations • Patent data • Turkish Patent Institute (TPE) for the period 2002-2011 at the NUTS3 level for 81 provinces of Turkey. • Patents and utility models are used as the proxy for innovation
Independentvariables • 1. Variety • Relatedandunrelated • Entropymeasures • The main advantage of the entropy measure, and the reason for its use in the context of diversiﬁcation, is that entropy can be decomposed at each sectoral digit level. • Entropy measures are computed using export data, which is available for Turkey at the four-digit level from the Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) database.
2. Export • Export data of 81 regionsforthe 2002-2011 • Data were collected at the NUTS 3 level as the spatial unit of analysis to deal with detailed export map of all 81 provinces for the period 2002-2011.
RelatedVariety • Weightedsum of theentropy at thefourdigitlevelwithineachtwodigitlevel. • UnrelatedVariety • Entropy of twodigitdistribution.
Letallfourdigitsectors i fallexclusivelyunder a twodigitsectorSgwhere g=1,…….,G • DerivetwodigitsharesPgbysummingthefourdigitshares Pi
The concept of entropy measures implies that four-digit entropy is equal to the sum of two-digit entropy as unrelated variety and the weighted sum of four-digit entropy within each two-digit class as related variety. • Related variety is considered to be the indicator for Jacobs’s externalities because it measures the variety within each of two-digit classes. • By contrast, unrelated variety measures the extent to which a region is diversiﬁed in very different types of activity.
Econometric Model Independentvariables: • totalinternational trade volume (TINT), • trade volume with Germany (TG), • related variety (RV) • unrelated variety (UV) Dependentvariable: Patentand utility model applications (P) The period of analysis is 2002-2011 for 81 provinces of Turkey. All variables used in panel-data analysis are handled in naturallogarithm form and stationary condition.
Conclusion • This study confirms the hypotheses that there is a positive relationship between • (i) related variety and innovation, • (ii) trade and innovation.
Thestudyalsoconfirmsthatthere is a simultaneousrelationshipbetween patent applicationsandinternationaltrade. • Thestudyfound no evidencethattradetieswithGermany has a strongerinfluence on patent applicationsthanoverallinternationaltrade. • Moreresearch is neededtoexploretheimpact of internationaltradewithGermany on innovativeness. • A closerexamination of sectoraldistribution of tradewithGermanyandsectoral patent applicationsmightgive a differentresult.