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Warm-Up. Read the following paragraphs and write 1 question for the following intellectual standards: Clarity Accuracy Significance

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warm up
Warm-Up
  • Read the following paragraphs and write 1 question for the following intellectual standards:
    • Clarity
    • Accuracy
    • Significance

VATICAN CITY — Citing advanced years and infirmity, but showing characteristic tough-mindedness and unpredictability, Pope Benedict XVI shocked Roman Catholics on Monday by saying that he would resign on Feb. 28, becoming the first pope to do so in six centuries. Speaking in Latin to a small gathering of cardinals at the Vatican on Monday morning, Benedict said that after examining his conscience “before God, I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise” of leading the world’s one billion Roman Catholics.

The statement, soon translated into seven languages, ricocheted around the globe.

A shy, tough-minded theologian who seemed to relish writing books more than greeting stadium crowds, Benedict, 85, was elected by fellow cardinals in 2005 after the death of John Paul II. An often divisive figure, he spent much of his papacy in the shadow of his beloved predecessor. Above all, Benedict’s papacy was overshadowed by clerical abuse scandals, a case involving documents leaked from within the Vatican itself and tangles with Jews, Muslims and Anglicans. In his handling of the sexual abuse crisis, critics said that his failures of governance were tantamount to moral failings.

In recent months, Benedict had been showing signs of age. He often seemed tired and even appeared to doze off during Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve, after being taken to the altar of Saint Peter’s on a wheeled platform. But few expected the pope to resign so suddenly, even though he had said in the past that he would consider the option.

“The pope took us by surprise,” said the Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, expounding on one of the most dramatic moments in centuries of Vatican history. He appeared at a hastily called news conference on Monday, where he stood by himself at the lectern, with an unopened bottle of mineral water and a dog-eared copy of a Canon Law guide before him.

Father Lombardi said that the pope would continue to carry out his duties until Feb. 28 at 8 p.m., and that a successor would probably be elected by Easter, which falls on March 31. But he said the timing for an election of a new pope is “not an announcement, it’s a hypothesis.”

slide2

VATICAN CITY — Citing advanced years and infirmity, but showing characteristic tough-mindedness and unpredictability, Pope Benedict XVI shocked Roman Catholics on Monday by saying that he would resign on Feb. 28, becoming the first pope to do so in six centuries. Speaking in Latin to a small gathering of cardinals at the Vatican on Monday morning, Benedict said that after examining his conscience “before God, I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise” of leading the world’s one billion Roman Catholics.

The statement, soon translated into seven languages, ricocheted around the globe.

A shy, tough-minded theologian who seemed to relish writing books more than greeting stadium crowds, Benedict, 85, was elected by fellow cardinals in 2005 after the death of John Paul II. An often divisive figure, he spent much of his papacy in the shadow of his beloved predecessor. Above all, Benedict’s papacy was overshadowed by clerical abuse scandals, a case involving documents leaked from within the Vatican itself and tangles with Jews, Muslims and Anglicans. In his handling of the sexual abuse crisis, critics said that his failures of governance were tantamount to moral failings.

In recent months, Benedict had been showing signs of age. He often seemed tired and even appeared to doze off during Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve, after being taken to the altar of Saint Peter’s on a wheeled platform. But few expected the pope to resign so suddenly, even though he had said in the past that he would consider the option.

“The pope took us by surprise,” said the Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, expounding on one of the most dramatic moments in centuries of Vatican history. He appeared at a hastily called news conference on Monday, where he stood by himself at the lectern, with an unopened bottle of mineral water and a dog-eared copy of a Canon Law guide before him.

Father Lombardi said that the pope would continue to carry out his duties until Feb. 28 at 8 p.m., and that a successor would probably be elected by Easter, which falls on March 31. But he said the timing for an election of a new pope is “not an announcement, it’s a hypothesis.”

Clarity – Could you provide an example of how he “spent much of his papacy in the shadow of his predecessor

Accuracy – How can we verify that Pope Benedict XVI is the first Pope to resign in six centuries?

Significance – Is the election of a new pope really the central idea to focus on?

today
Today
  • OBJ: SWBAT identify and describe the underlying causes of the Arab Spring.
  • Relevance: Today we are learning about the Arab Spring because this series of recent revolutions continues to impact international political relations.
  • DOL: Given an exit card, SWBAT: (80% Accuracy)
    • Answer 3 multiple choice questions.
    • Write a thesis statement for the following prompt:
      • Describe the major underlying causes of the Arab Spring.
  • Notes Title: Causes of the Arab Spring
  • EQ: Underneath the title of your notes, write today’s lesson objective in the form of an essential
today1
Today
  • Our focus today is going to be on Stage 1, or the underlying causes, of a series of revolutions that took place in Northern Africa and the Middle East: The Arab Spring
  • Today’s Process:
    • Define Arab Spring
    • Review Geography of Region
    • Underlying Causes of Uprisings
      • Dictators with Police States
      • Political and Religious Oppression
      • Educated Workforce with Underemployment

CFU: Think/Write/Share:

Based off your previous knowledge of the Cycle of Revolutions, how do these causes fit into this model?

the arab spring
The Arab Spring

0-5: Arab Spring?

  • A revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on December 18th, 2010
  • Included riots, protests, popular uprisings and revolutions.

CFU: Think/Write/Share:

Based off your previous knowledge of the Cycle of Revolutions, predict what led to these uprisings. What do you think the underlying causes could be?

the arab world
The “Arab World”
  • 0-5  Arab World
    • Arabic-speaking states and populations in North Africa, the Middle East and elsewhere
  • 0-5  Arab v. Muslim
    • Muslim refers to someone of Islamic faith
    • Not everyone in the Arab World is Muslim

CFU: Think/Write/Share:

Think of another relationship similar to the Arab/Muslim comparison. Justify in two sentences how your example is similar.

cycle of revolutions review
Cycle of Revolutions: Review

Stage 1:

Oppression

Stage 4:

Similar Government gains power

OR

New form of Government

Stage 2:

Ruled rise up against the rulers.

Stage 3:

Backlash – The rulers go against the ruled

OR

A select few of the ruled get power hungry and go back to the old political structure

OR

Revolution Begins

stage 1 oppression
Stage 1: Oppression
  • The “incubation” stage of the cycle of revolutions is often a period of oppression
    • 05 Oppression
      • The exercise of authority or power in a cruel or unjust manner
  • This stage can last for an extended time and the “symptoms” of a revolution might not be apparent at this point
  • Citizens who feel that they are being treated unjustly will begin to resent their current government….leading to stage 2 of the cycle

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Drawing on your knowledge of historical and modern revolutions, list ways in which a government can oppress its’ people.

arab spring stage 1
Arab Spring: Stage 1
  • There are a number of underlying causes that eventually led to the series of protests, uprisings and revolutions in the Arab world
    • Each of the countries that experienced civil unrest experienced:
      • Dictators who enforced police states
      • Political and Religious Oppression
      • Young and well-educated workforce with limited job opportunities

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Which of these underlying causes do you predict is most significant in leading to Revolutions? Justify with two specific pieces of evidence why one is more important than the other two.

cause 1 dictators
Cause # 1: Dictators
  • 05 Dictator
    • A ruler who assumes sole and absolute power
  • Leading up to the Arab Spring, many countries in the Arab World were governed by brutal dictators
  • These dictators were not supported by their people and in many instances were supported by Western countries
  • Most ruled for decades at a time and used their power over the military to silence anyone who spoke out against them

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Drawing connections: How do you think the presence of dictators is connected to eventual uprisings in these countries? Provide two justifications for why this is an example of Stage 1 of the Cycle of Revolutions.

cause 2 political and religious oppression
Cause # 2: Political and Religious Oppression
  • Under the rule of dictators, citizens in many countries were forbidden from participating in the political process
    • Rights of the people were not protected by the government but instead were limited
      • No freedom of speech
      • Restrictions on religious choice
  • Attempts to change this were met with brutal force
  • Dictators would use the military and police forces to protect their interests
    • No fair trials
    • Protestors were silenced

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Scenario: If you lived in a country where your rights were not protected but rather limited by your government how would you react? Give two examples and defend why your actions would be justified.

cause 3 educated workforce no jobs
Cause # 3: Educated Workforce, No Jobs
  • Countries possessed effective education systems
  • The population of the Arab world is about 400 million people
    • Of this 400 million, half of the population is under 25 years old
  • These factors combined result in a large population of University educated youth
  • However, these individuals cannot find jobs upon graduation
  • Highly skilled young people grow increasingly frustrated with the lack of support or action from the government

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Why do you think youth unemployment is connected to civil uprisings and unrest. Does adult unemployment have as a pronounced of an effect? Why or why not?

scenario
Scenario

You are a young, well-educated individual living in a country that has been ruled by the same man for 30 years. You cannot participate in the political process because your country does not have democratic elections. While you would like to voice your discontent, you fear the retaliation of the government and are all too familiar with the harsh punishments inflicted on those who dissent. Frustrated, your resentment toward your government silently grows. One day, a young man similar to yourself douses himself in gasoline and lights himself on fire to protest the actions of the government.

  • How do you react? List your first three actions following this event. Why do you choose each of these actions?
  • Do you believe that the actions of this single individual can bring about change? Provide two pieces of support for your opinion.
included many countries
Included many countries…
  • Revolutions:
    • Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen
  • Civil Uprisings:
    • Bahrain, Syria
    • Major Protests:
      • Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Oman
    • Minor Protests:
      • Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Western Sahara
  • Over the next couple of days, we will be looking more specifically at how the Cycle of Revolutions unfolded in various countries.
chain reaction theory
Chain Reaction Theory

0-5: What is a chain reaction?

  • Political theorists believe that when one country falls into civil unrest and potential revolution, then others in similar political environments will also fall into civil unrest.
  • This caused civil unrest to spread from one nation to the surrounding countries.

CFU: Think/Write/Share

Do you agree with this theory? Why or why not? Provide two examples that support your opinion.

slide16
DOL

3. The Arab Spring directly impacted

a. All of Africa and the Middle East

b. Egypt and Tunisia

c. A number of countries in the Arab World

d. Europe and the United States

  • 4. Write a thesis statement for the following prompt:
    • Describe the major underlying causes of the Arab Spring.

1. The Arab Spring can best be described as

a. A period of civil unrest and revolutions in the Arab Worldb. A time when peace treaties were negotiatedc. The result of American intervention

d. nonviolent civil disobedience

2. All of the following are underlying causes of the Arab Spring except

  • Longstanding dictators
  • Democracy was only for men
  • Political and religious oppression
  • Large, well-educated, young populations
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Multiple Choice Answers:
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • The Arab Spring profoundly altered geopolitical relations beginning in December of 2010. The underlying causes of this series of events were the presence of long-standing dictators, political and religious oppressions, and the proportion of well-educated youth who remained unemployed. Together, these factors combined to alter the political landscape of the Arab World.