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The Quality Colloquium
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  1. Leadership for Reliable SystemsAugust 21, 2006 The Quality Colloquium Stephen R. Mayfield Senior Vice President smayfield@aha.org

  2. Visualize Success: We Don’t all SEEthe Same Thing

  3. Seeing Differently • De Kalb, Illinois • DeKalb, Georgia

  4. Leaders Create the Vision and Set Direction “Would you tell me please which way I ought to go from here?” asked Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the cat. “I don’t much care,” said Alice. “Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the cat.

  5. Leaders Create Expectations • Leaders -> Values -> Behaviors -> Culture -> Performance Courtesy of Ann Rhoades

  6. Leaders Must • Eliminate Preventable Harm • Develop Highly Reliable Systems • Improve Outcomes Year-to-Year • Reduce Costs of Care Year-to-Year

  7. Unceasing Efforts to : • Remove Waste • Eliminate Defects • Reduce Variability “All work is a system, every system has processes and every process has waste and variability.”

  8. Relentless Pursuit of Waste • Public perception, the Camry Effect and Community Contribution

  9. Change in Cost of Insurance Premiums and Co-Pays 2000 2002 2006

  10. The Camry Effect

  11. Other Approaches Exist • Juran: “There is 30% waste in most healthcare processes” • Dartmouth study: “Providers in Salt Lake are number one, if all providers emulated their efficiency CMS could save 30% in expenditures”.

  12. Reliability and the Four Components of Care Delivery Patient Information Clinical Decision Care Process Patient Flow

  13. Visualize Success: We Need to SEEour Processes

  14. Our Approach to Date is not Yielding Desired Rate of Change • We have believed that – • If we have enough of the right data – • Analysis will indicate compelling need to change – • Change will therefore occur

  15. We need to Learn to see our processes in a different light

  16. Reliability and the Four Components of Care Delivery Patient Information Clinical Decision Care Process Patient Flow

  17. CD CD CD Systems of Care and Simple MetricsInformation -> Clinical Decisions -> Care Processes -> Patient Flow Evidenced Based Medicine Clinical Information System Outcome Indicators (LOS, Mortality, Infection, Readmits) Financial System Clinical Best Practices Charges Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Process Measures (Waste, SMR, Cycle Time Variances, etc.) Patient Patient Patient Patient Patient Flow

  18. CD CD CD Innovation in Reliable Care Evidenced Based Medicine EMR & Orders Free of Preventable Harm CPOE Clinical Information System Outcome Indicators (LOS, Mortality, Infection, Readmits) Financial System Clinical Best Practices Charges Timely Resulting RFID Sponges I.D. and Match Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Cp1 + Cp2 + Cp3…. Process Measures (SMR, Cycle Time Variances, etc.) Safe Meds Accurate Labs Patient Patient Patient Patient Patient Flow RFID Location

  19. Lean + Six Sigma = More Value # Steps + 3σ+ 4σ+ 5σ+ 6σ 1 93.32% 99.379% 99.9767% 99.99997% 7 61.63% 95.733% 99.839% 99.9976% 10 50.08% 93.96% 99.768% 99.9966% 20 25.08% 88.29% 99.536% 99.9932% 40 6.29% 77.94% 99.074% 99.9864% Lean Reduces non-value add steps Six Sigma improves quality of value-add steps

  20. Leaders Must • Eliminate Preventable Harm • Develop Highly Reliable Systems • Improve Outcomes Year-to-Year • Reduce Costs of Care Year-to-Year

  21. Unceasing Efforts to : • Remove Waste • Eliminate Defects • Reduce Variability “All work is a system, every system has processes and every process has waste and variability.”

  22. Cost of Poor Quality and Defects

  23. The 8 Deadly Wastes • Overproduction • Waits/Delays • Transport • Process • Movement • Inventory • Defects • Underutilization

  24. Laboratory Improvements: Six Sigma Methods

  25. Laboratory

  26. High Level Phlebotomy Flow MQC

  27. Detailed Phlebotomy Flow MQC

  28. Data Collection • Design instrument • Develop plan • Collect Information • Found 3 Problems: Matching, Batching Attaching

  29. Over 40 specific defects identified in 6 classes: • Label defects (unlabeled, misplaced, wrong patient labels, misaligned, etc.) • Patient ID band defects ( improper matching, no label, wrong label, etc.) • Unsuccessful draw (not first stick, second phlebotomist required) • Unacceptable specimen/recollect (wrong tube, clotted, hemolyzed, insufficient quantity, contaminated, overfilled, etc.)

  30. Surounded by Defects !

  31. Prevention – Appraisal – Failure: Visible Defects and Direct Costs are The Tip of the Iceberg!

  32. Defect Rate Driven to Zero!

  33. Improving Interventional Flow with Lean Six Sigma

  34. SIPOC Interventional Scheduling Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers Requirements Physician Patient Radiologist Pathology/Lab Nursing/ I.P. Registration Convenient Accurate Results Timely On Demand Convenient Clear expectations Timely Results Results Previous Exam Good History Convenient Schedule H&P Accurate Scheduling Completed record Demographic info Payer info ICD 9 See Below Orders Patient Information Schedule Information Capacity Staffing Physicians Completed Procedure Specimen Obtained Results in System Receive call from Physician for Interventional test Approve Test Contact ordering Physician, Schedule test Patient enters our “system” (“Orders, Labs, H&P) Administer and complete test

  35. Detailed Flow Chart

  36. Data Collection • Data Collection bserving the Process

  37. Analysis

  38. CurrentProcess vs.Delay

  39. Effect of Inpatient inserted in Schedule

  40. Sometimes the System Just Gets You

  41. MinMax 609 Min 234 Min 62 Min

  42. Costs of Poor Quality

  43. Visible Defects and Hidden Costs

  44. The 8 Deadly Wastes • Overproduction • Waits/Delays • Transport • Process • Movement • Inventory • Defects • Underutilization

  45. One Hospital’s Approach:Latent CostsIdentified OpportunitiesRealized Gains

  46. One Example of Latent Costs