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Reading Next. Reading in the Secondary Classroom Presented by Shelly Smede. Tips for Teachers Presenting to Other Teachers. If you are nervous, add some humor. These jokes will help ease the tension - even if you're the only one who thinks you’re funny.

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Reading next

Reading Next

Reading in the Secondary Classroom

Presented by Shelly Smede

Tips for teachers presenting to other teachers
Tips for Teachers Presenting to Other Teachers

  • If you are nervous, add some humor. These jokes will help ease the tension - even if you're the only one who thinks you’re funny.

  • Use the phrase "new paradigm" as often as you can - it will add value to whatever you are presenting.

  • Many teachers will sit in your session just long enough to get the handouts and then they will leave. Don't play into this little game. Always lock the door before you distribute any handouts.

Tips for teachers presenting to other teachers1
Tips for Teachers Presenting to Other Teachers

  • Some cynic will always accuse you of being too much of an idealist and not enough of a realist. Tell this person that ideally, no one would say such a thing during someone else's presentation, but that realistically you figured someone would.

  • Your level of expertise is in direct relation to the distance you are from your school. Tell those attending your session that you are from The Mid-Antarctic Consolidated School District.

Lexiles lili reading next crayola curriculum

Five Fingers: I could teach this.Four Fingers: I know a lot about this.Three Fingers: I have heard of this.Two Fingers: This is new to me.

  • New Idaho State Reading Standards

  • Logographic Cues

  • Graphic Organizers



Reading Next

Crayola Curriculum

Findings in reading
Findings in Reading

  • Teaching of formal reading instruction tends to end after elementary school.

  • 80% of elementary text is fiction.

  • 80% of secondary text is nonfiction.

  • Students must be trained in the literacy of each subject field.

  • About 70% of adolescents need some type of remediation.

Findings in reading1
Findings in Reading

  • 50% of students read fewer than four minutes a day.

  • 30% read two minutes or fewer per day.

  • 10% do not spend any time reading.

  • 83% of faculty say that the lack of analytical reading skills contributes to students’ lack of success in a course.

Findings in reading2
Findings in Reading

  • The current and future job market requires workers who are highly literate, which means they can read with comprehension, assess and interpret information, and utilize it appropriately.

    • The Principal’s Partnership

Findings in reading3
Findings in Reading

  • “Based on 2005 ACT-tested high school graduates, it appears that only about half of our nation’s ACT-tested high school students are ready for college-level reading.”

    • ACT College Readiness Executive Summary

Mike schmoker research results now 2006
Mike Schmoker ResearchResults Now, 2006

  • In lowest achieving schools, most of the class period was spent on activities such as drawing or coloring or filling in worksheets that had no connection to learning outcomes.

  • Student work was handed in, but rarely returned.

  • In all schools, poor or affluent, students were rarely, if ever, reading. (86)

The crayola curriculum
The Crayola Curriculum

  • What was the single most predominant activity in the schools observed, right up through middle school?

    Coloring, Cutting, and Pasting

Literature based arts crafts
Literature Based Arts & Crafts

  • Instead of reading and writing, students were found to spend most of their day making…

    • Dioramas

    • Game boards

    • Posters

    • Mobiles

    • Bookmarks

    • Book jackets

    • Coats of Arms…

Reading next recommendations carnegie foundation 2004 ncte 2006
Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006)

  • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction

  • Effective instructional principles embedded in content

  • Motivation and self-directed learning

Reading next recommendations carnegie foundation 2004 ncte 20061
Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006)

  • Text-based collaborative learning

  • Strategic tutoring

  • Diverse texts

  • Intensive writing

Reading next recommendations carnegie foundation 2004 ncte 20062
Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006)

  • A technology component

  • Ongoing formative assessment of students

  • Extended time for literacy

  • Professional development

Reading next recommendations carnegie foundation 2004 ncte 20063
Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006)

  • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs

  • Teacher teams

  • Leadership

  • A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

Classes that spend their time bell to bell reading writing and talking result in
Classes that spend their time (bell to bell) reading, writing, and talking result in…

A College Prep Curriculum

Reading levels

Reading Levels writing, and talking result in…

Independent Level of Reading:

95% word recognition; 90% comprehension without teacher assistance

Instructional Level of Reading:

90% word recognition; 75% comprehension

Frustration Level of Reading:

Students recognize fewer than 90% of words and comprehend less than 50%

At this level, students are too frustrated by the text to learn from it.

(Beers, 2003, pg. 205)

How long would you keep reading
How long would you keep reading? writing, and talking result in…

Scientists use models to refer to a d____ or d____ of something, s____ one which can be used to make ____ that can be tested by ____ or ___. A h___ is a c___ that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by e___. A theory, in the context of science, is a l___ self-c___ model or f___ for d___ the b___ of certain n___ p___. A theory t___ d___ the b___ of much broader sets of p___ than a h___ — c___, a large number of h___ may be l___bound together by a single theory. A p___ law or law of nature is a s___ g___ based on a s___ large number of e___ o___ that it is taken as fully v___.

Relationship between time spent reading and reading achievement

Minutes of Text Reading per Day writing, and talking result in…

Estimated Number of Words Read per Year

Percentile Rank



















Relationship between Time Spent Reading and Reading Achievement

Fifth-Grade Students

from Anderson et al., 1988, Table 3, N = 155.

Reading levels1
Reading Levels writing, and talking result in…

  • “When students must read certain texts that you know will cause word recognition problems (frustration level of reading), then accept that you won’t be improving word recognition with that text.”

    • (Beers, 2003, pg. 242)

State standards 10 th grade

State Standards – 10 writing, and talking result in…th Grade

Standard 1 reading process
Standard 1: Reading Process writing, and talking result in…

  • Analyze the structure and format of various informational documents.

  • Identify the text characteristics of different genres of literature.

  • Apply knowledge of roots and word parts to draw inferences about new words.

  • Use context analysis to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.

Standard 2 comprehension interpretation
Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation writing, and talking result in…

  • Synthesize the content from several sources on a single issue; compare and contrast ideas to demonstrate comprehension.

  • Apply reading strategies to self monitor for comprehension.

  • Clarify an understanding of text by creating outlines, notes, annotations, charts, and/or diagrams.

  • Critique the logic of informational texts by examining the sequence of information and procedures.

Standard 2 comprehension interpretation1
Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation writing, and talking result in…

  • Define the purpose and audience of a variety of communication formats (e.g., essays, letters, user manuals, lab reports, websites).

  • Evaluate the comprehensiveness and validity of evidence in an author’s argument.

  • Read and respond to literature from a variety of genres.

  • Analyze characters’ traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, and soliloquy.

Standard 2 comprehension interpretation2
Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation writing, and talking result in…

  • Explain the author’s point of view and interpret how it influences the text.

  • Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the views expressed in each work.

  • Analyze ways in which authors use imagery, figures of speech, and the “sound” of language for effect.

  • Compare and contrast authors’ styles on the basis of such elements as word choice and sentence syntax.

State standards 8 th grade

State Standards – 8 writing, and talking result in…th Grade

Standard 2 comprehension interpretation3
Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation writing, and talking result in…

  • Determine the relationships among facts, ideas, and events used in various texts to support a central purpose.

  • Distinguish cause and effect relationships in text to gain meaning.

  • Make inferences, draw conclusions, and form opinions based on information gathered from text and cite evidence to support.

Standard 2 comprehension interpretation4
Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation writing, and talking result in…

  • Evaluate expository text structure to extend comprehension.

  • Generate how, why, and what-if questions for interpreting expository texts.

  • Apply central ideas (literal of inferential) and critical details to summarize information from expository text.

  • Identify the main purpose and anticipate outcomes of procedures specified in informational text.

Us gov t instructional calendar skyline
US Gov’t Instructional Calendar writing, and talking result in…Skyline

Us gov t instructional calendar skyline cont
US Gov’t Instructional Calendar writing, and talking result in…Skyline, cont.

69% of Idaho state reading objectives for tenth grade are those that should be utilized and learned across the curriculum.


Inferences those that should be utilized and learned

An inference is the ability to connect what is in the text with what is in the mind to make an educated guess.

Read the following passage and discuss what you think is happening
Read the following passage and discuss what you think is happening.

“He put down $10 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $4.00. The person next to him gave him $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.”

  • (Beers, 2003 pp. 62-63)

Step inside a classroom
Step Inside a Classroom happening.

  • Teacher: What can you tell me about this passage?

  • S1: This doesn’t make any sense.

  • S2: It sort of does, down here, with the popcorn. Maybe it’s about a movie.

  • S3: It doesn’t say anything about a movie.

  • S1: I don’t get it.

  • S3: This is stupid.

What s happening
What’s Happening? happening.

  • “These students don’t understand that reading requires action on their part…. They expect the text to provide everything. Their job, they believe, is at most to decode the print. After that, well, if the meaning isn’t immediately apparent, they stop reading or ask us to explain.”

    • (Beers, 2003, pg. 69)

Before reading

Before Reading happening.

Does purpose setting matter
Does purpose setting matter? happening.

  • Pink: Memorize the following words.

  • Yellow: Count the vowels in the following words.

  • Blue: Rate each of the following words on its level of pleasantness, with 1 being “least pleasant” and 5 being “most pleasant.

  • If asked at the end of today’s workshop, only 50% of the memorizers would remember the words

Activating prior knowledge
Activating Prior Knowledge happening.


“The procedure is really quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you’re pretty well set. It’s important not to overdo any particular endeavor. It is better to do too few things than to do too many….”

  • Bransford & Johnson (1972, JVLVB)

Independent readers

Look at the… happening.










Print size

Front flaps

Back cover…

Independent Readers…

Dependent readers
Dependent happening. Readers…

  • …are told to read something…and once the text is in their hands, they just begin.

  • They skip titles and background information.

  • They rarely look through the text for clues.

  • The assignment is to read, so they’ll read—maybe (Beers, 2003, pg. 74).

Strategies happening.

  • Anticipation Guides

    • Present students with pertinent issues that are worth discussing but that don’t have clear-cut answers.

    • Anticipation guides first act as a pre-reading strategy and encourage making predictions. They allow students to look for cause/effect relationships. They also allow students to generalize and explore their responses to texts.

Anticipation guide
Anticipation Guide happening.

Before Reading After Reading

1. TV viewing is a major cause of health problems.

Agree/Disagree? Agree/Disagree?

2. TV should supply pleasure rather than moralize.

Agree/Disagree? Agree/Disagree?

3. Television is more beneficial than harmful.

Agree/Disagree? Agree/Disagree?

Probable passage see next slide for example
Probable Passage happening.See Next Slide for Example

  • Brief summary based on key words from the text

  • Arrange words in categories

  • Write prediction statement that offers a gist of what the selection might be about.

College homework anxiety ridden sardonic
College happening.HomeworkAnxiety-riddenSardonic

ObsessedYoung LatinosBellwetherWal-Mart

Middle SchoolBarbieMisgivingsteens

NanniesAmerican FamilyPTA MeetingsPrejudice

Title: “Barbie to Baby Einstein: Get Over It”




Gist Statement:


Unknown Words:

To discover:

Tea party

loathsome fire ants happening.

metamorphosis takes place inside


defend their nests

phorid fly implants one egg

won’t attack other species

80% reduction

flies were released

inside the ant’s head

Tea Party

During reading

During Reading happening.

Say something beers 2003 pg 106
Say Something! happening.(Beers, 2003, pg. 106)

  • With a partner, decide who will say something first

  • When you say something, do one or more of the following

    • Make a prediction

    • Ask a question

    • Clarify a misunderstanding

    • Make a comment

    • Make a connection

  • If you can’t do one of these things, then you need to reread.

Make a prediction
Make a prediction happening.

  • I predict that…

  • I bet that…

  • I think that…

  • Since this happened (fill in detail), then I bet the next thing to happen is…

  • Reading this part makes me think that this (fill in detail) is about to happen.

  • I wonder if…

Ask a question
Ask a Question happening.

  • Why did…

  • What’s this part about…

  • How is this (fill in detail) like this (fill in detail)…

  • What would happen if…

  • Why…

  • Who is…

  • Do you think that…

Clarify something
Clarify Something happening.

  • Oh, I get it…

  • Now I understand…

  • This makes sense now…

  • No, I think it means…

  • I agree with you. This means…

  • At first I thought (fill in detail), but now I think…

  • This part is really saying…

Make a comment
Make a Comment happening.

  • This is good because…

  • This is hard because…

  • This is confusing because…

  • I like the part where…

  • I don’t like this part because…

  • My favorite part so far is…

  • I think that…

Make a connection
Make a Connection happening.

  • This reminds me of…

  • This part is like…

  • This character (fill in name) is like (fill in name) because…

  • This is similar to…

  • The differences are…

  • This setting reminds me of…

Say something beers 2003 pg 1061
Say Something! happening.(Beers, 2003, pg. 106)

  • If you can’t do one of these things, then you need to reread.

Rereading happening.

  • Prove to students that rereading is valuable

  • Model your thinking as you reread a text

  • Give students specific tasks as they reread

  • Review what happened as students reread.

Logographic cues

happening.A- Change in Action

∆ T- Change in Time

∆ F- Change in Focus

∆ T/M- Change in Tone or Mood

∆ S- Change in Setting

∆ POV- Change in Point of View

∆ D- Change in Direction

∆ C/S- Change in Condition or Status

Logographic Cues

Jim Burke, Tools for Thought (6)

Logographic cues1

Protagonist happening.








Logographic Cues

Kylene Beers, (130)

Two column notes
Two-Column Notes happening.

  • Big Topic (Green)

  • Main Point  Examples, Facts, Details

  • Main Point  Examples, Facts, Details

  • Main Point  Examples, Facts, Details

Q notes

Turn chap. titles & sub-headings into questions in this column:

Answer questions here using bullets and dashes to organize ideas:

Q Notes

Chapter 11 focus on literacy in every subject
Chapter 11: “Focus on Literacy in Every Subject” column:

Chapter 11 Subheadings

  • “Don’t Know Much About Biology”

  • “Project Pain”

  • “Adding and Subtracting Our Way to Literacy”

    • From Reading Doesn’t Matter Anymore by David Booth

Reporter s notes burke 2002
Reporter’s Notes column:(Burke, 2002)

Spreadsheet notes burke 2002
Spreadsheet Notes column:(Burke, 2002)

Target notes
Target Notes column:





The Trackers




The Pearl Buyer

The Doctor





After reading

After Reading column:

Somebody wanted but so character motivation conflict resolution
Somebody Wanted But So column: (character) (motivation) (conflict) (resolution)


Rachel’s Teacher

To feel 11 on her birthday

to return the sweater to its rightful owner

She is humiliated when her teacher forces an old sweater on her.

she doesn’t know who owns it

She feels helpless as she bursts into tears at her desk.

she mistakenly makes Rachel take it and even put it on.

Question it says i say and so
Question It Says I Say And So column:

3. Think about what you know about that information.

4. Combine what the text says with what you know to come up with the answer.

1. Read the Question.

2. Find information from the text that will help you answer the question.

Question it says i say and so1
Question It Says I Say And So column:

3. Sometimes when I am really surprised or unhappy, I can’t think of anything to say to help change the situation.

4. I think that Rachel wasn’t prepared to have her teacher treat her like this on her birthday. So when it does, she doesn’t have the words to protest.

  • Why doesn’t Rachel just tell her teacher the sweater isn’t hers?

2. In the story, she says that when she opens her mouth to say the sweater isn’t hers, that nothing comes out.

This is an easy formula for making inferences!

Conversational roundtable burke 2002
Conversational Roundtable column:(Burke, 2002)


Think in threes burke 2002
Think in Threes column:(Burke, 2002)

Ancient Rome

Ancient China


Early America

Think in threes burke 20021
Think in Threes column:(Burke, 2002)


Catcher in the Rye




Kite Runner

Think in threes burke 20022
Think in Threes column:(Burke, 2002)

Nervous System

Respiratory System

The Brain

Circulatory System

A six step process for teaching vocabulary
A Six-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary column:

  • Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term.

  • Step 2: Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words.

  • Step 3: Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase.

  • Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks.

  • Step 5: Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another.

  • Step 6: Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms.

Student vocab organizer marzano building background knowledge
Student Vocab Organizer column:(Marzano, Building Background Knowledge)

Term: My Understanding 1 2 3 4





Give students the smart words
Give Students the Smart Words column:

Words to Describe the Plot

Positive Negative

Realistic unrealistic

Good pacing plodding

Suspenseful Predictable

Satisfying ending Frustrating ending

Subplots connected well Confusing subplots

Well-developed ideas Sketchy ideas

Give students the smart words1
Give Students the Smart Words column:

Words to Describe Characters

Positive Negative

Original Stereotyped

Believable Unbelievable

Well-rounded Flat

Multi-dimensional Static/stays same

Well-developed Flawed

Give students the smart words2
Give Students the Smart Words column:

Words to Describe the Theme

Positive Negative

Important Message Unimportant message

Subtle Overbearing

Unique Overworked

Powerful Ineffective

Memorable Forgettable

Give students the smart words3
Give Students the Smart Words column:

Words to Describe Author’s Style

Positive Negative

Descriptive/use of metaphors Boring, no imagery

Original Filled with clichés

Lively, full of action Slow-moving

Poetic or lyrical Clodding, jumpy

Kylene beers 2003

“Becoming a reader shapes who we are, how we see the world, and how we see ourselves in the world. Tragically, failure to become a reader shapes our perceptions as well.”

Kylene Beers, 2003