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A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology. PERSONALITY. Revision Guide Mr Leighton. Personality TIPS!. Make sure you learn the specific definition of personality! Have awareness of the links between personality and sports performance.

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A2 physical education sport psychology l.jpg

A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology

PERSONALITY

Revision Guide

Mr Leighton


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Personality TIPS!

  • Make sure you learn the specific definition of personality!

  • Have awareness of the links between personality and sports performance.

  • It is important to understand the NATURE (trait) V NURTURE (social learning) and interactionist perspectives of behaviour.

  • Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective.

  • Be aware of the problems associated with the use of personality profiling in sport.


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Personality

“The sum total of an individuals characteristics which make him unique” (Hollander).

“Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment to the environment” (Eysenck).


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Personality Types

TRAITS

NARROW BAND APPROACH, GIRDANO, 1990

INTROVERT

Shy, timid,

reserved, aloof,

self sufficient

TYPE ‘A’

Highly competitive,

Strong desire to succeed,

Works fast, likes to control,

Prone to suffer stress

EXTROVERT

Adventurous,

confident,

Sociable,

Group dependent,

enthusiastic

TYPE ‘B’

Non-competitive,

Unambitious,

Works more slowly,

Does not enjoy control

Less prone to stress


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NATURE

V’s

NURTURE

Personality Theories

Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

“All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment”

BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT

-ve = Does not consider inherited behaviour (traits)

Trait Theory

“People are born with established personality characteristics”

  • Inherited at birth.

  • Stable

  • Enduring

  • consistent in all situations.

    BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY

    +ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires

    -ve = Does not take into account environmental influences. It is not a true indicator of behaviour.

    CATTELL (1965) identified 16 personality traits

    INTROVERT & EXTROVERT

Interactionist Theory

“Behaviour occurs from the interaction between inherited traits and learned experiences”

BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY × ENVIRNOMENT


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Personality Theories

Concentric Ring Theory (Hollander 1967)

Role Related Behaviour – Surface of personality

Typical Response – Your usual response in most situations

The Psychological Core – The ‘real you’

The boundary line of each layer gets wider as you get closer to the centre of the model which shows that each layer is harder to enter. As you move closer to the centre, your ‘real’ personality begins to surface


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Personality Theories

Psychodynamic Theory (Freud, 1933)

ID

Basic Instinct

(no conscious

control)

EGO

Conscious

link with reality

ID, EGO & SUPER EGO interact to produce individual patterns of behaviour in sport.

SUPER EGO

Moral Arm

(social conscience)

Personality is formed from the conflict of SEEKING, RELEASING and INHIBITING behaviour.

****THINK OF AGGRESSION AS AN EXAMPLE!****


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Personality Theories

Eysenck’s Personality Types

Personality traits run across 2 continuums:

INTROVERT: unsociable, shy & nervous

EXTROVERT: sociable, outgoing & lively

STABLE: calm, even-tempered, controlled 7 logical

UNSTABLE: anxious, moody, unpredictable & illogical

NEUROTIC

(UNSTABLE)

INTROVERT

EXTROVERT

STABLE


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Personality Testing

Methods of Testing

  • Observation

  • Psychometric methods: self report questionnaires (16 personality factor questionnaire designed by CATTELL)

    Problems

  • Questionnaires, observations and self-reports are not reliable as people can fix answers.

  • SCEPTICAL APPROACH: Evidence is too general – personality alone can not predict behaviour.

  • CREDULOUS APPROACH: Although there is a link between personality research and performance in sport, there is lack of evidence to support this.


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Attitudes TIPS!

  • Make sure you understand how attitudes are formed and influenced.

  • You need to be able to explain how attitudes can be changed.

  • Try to understand the links between attitude and behaviour in sport.


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ATTITUDE OBJECTS

The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.


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What is an ATTITUDE?

ATTITUDES – A learned behavioural predisposition. (linked with personality)

UNSTABLE

LEARNED

CAN BE

CHANGED/

CONTROLLED

DIRECTED TOWARDS

ATTITUDE OBJECTS

ENDURING EMOTIONAL

& BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE


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Formation of Attitudes

COACHES/ TEACHERS

PAST EXPERIENCES

ATTITUDES

PREDUJICE

PARENTS

MEDIA

FRIENDS/ PEERS

Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences.

Socialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people.


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Triadic Model of Attitudes

This is known as the information component

This concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object

This is known as the emotional component


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Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

If a person hold two ideas that oppose and conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. Emotional conflict is called DISSONANCE.


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Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

To reduce this feeling of dissonance, the impact of one of the conflicting ideas could be lessened and therefore an attitude would change.

Updating knowledge or providing a person with new information can change the cognitive component.

Providing a person with new and positive experiences can modify the affective component.

If a skill is simplified or if some form of guidance is used to make execution easier, the behavioural component of attitude can be changed.

Remember METHODS OF GUIDANCE from AS SKILL


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Persuasive Communication Theory

You need to be aware of most effective way of persuading someone to change their attitude.

Would these people persuade you or would they just cause you stress?


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Persuasive Communication Theory

  • The Persuader

  • Significant other

  • with high status

2. The Message

Positive to initiate

the change

  • PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION

  • the personmust

    • pay attention

  • - understand

    • - accept

    • - retain

    • the message being given

  • the coach must

    • - be expert

    • - be trustworthy

  • the message must

    • - be clear

    • - be unambiguous

    • - be balanced between pros and cons

3. The recipients

Easy to changed

an attitude if the

recipient really

wishes to be

changed

4. The situation

The presence of

other persuaders


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TASK…………

You are a GCSE PE pupil. How could persuasive communication change your negative attitude towards cross country?


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ANSWER…………

  • A significant other, e.g. teacher/captain persuades you that cross country has excellent fitness benefits for a GCSE PE pupil. The teacher explains that they can chose cross country as one of their 4 sports.

  • The teacher tells you it will improve your practical grade if you opt for cross country.

  • You understand that this could improve your overall practical grade so you begin to realise the benefits of taking part.

  • Other pupils in your GCSE class share positive experiences of cross country with you and actively encourage you to take part.


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TASK…………

How could a physical education teacher change the negative attitude that a pupil may have towards swimming?


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ANSWER…..

  • Educate the pupil about the benefits of swimming

  • Use cognitive dissonance theory

  • Persuasive communication from a significant other, e.g. teacher

  • Set achievable goals to ensure pupil achieves success and experiences enjoyment.

  • Offer rewards, e.g. praise, trophies.

  • Familiarise with role models from within the sport of swimming.

  • Use floats to make execution of some strokes easier.

  • Attribution retraining.


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To conclude……….

  • Attitudes are generally poor predictors of behaviour.

  • Social and situational factors influence actual behaviour very strongly.

  • “Behavioural intention is the strongest predictor of behaviour (Fishbein, 1974).”


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Achievement Motivation TIPS!

  • You need to understand the meaning of the term ‘achievement motivation’.

  • Make sure you know the characteristics of the different personality types – TAS and TAF.

  • You need to be aware of the links between personality and the motive to achieve.

  • It is important to make links between TAS and TAF and ‘attributions’ for success and failure.


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Achievement Motivation

Achievement Motivation is a concept developed by sports psychologists to link PERSONALITY and COMPETITIVENESS.

The major issue centres on the extent to which an INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED TO ATTAIN SUCCESS.

Success in sport is measured against some type of COMPETITIVE GOAL.


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Types of Goals

  • According to BIDDLE, there are several types of goal against which success can be judged:

  • MASTERY or TASK GOALS: Associated with self-improvement, e.g. trying to achieve a PB in athletics (the same as PROCESS GOALS).

  • EGO or ABILITY GOALS: Involve a comparison against ones rivals, e.g. beating everyone else to win the club tennis tournament (the same as OUTCOME GOALS)

  • SOCIALLY APPROVED GOALS: Involves seeking social reinforcement as a measure of success, e.g. winning to earn approval from parents or coaches.

THINK BACK TO GOALS FROM AS SKILL!


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Atkinson & McClelland (1976) – Interactionist View

In any challenging situation, everyone will have both a ‘need to achieve’ and a ‘need to avoid failure’. Whichever feeling is stronger will determine whether the task is accepted or declined.

Competitive orientation is generated through personality and situational factors


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Personality Factors

A = TAS

someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure and will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky, e.g.

the hard route up a rock face

B = TAF

someone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve and will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved, e.g. the easy route up the rock face

TAS = Tendency to APPROACH success

TAF = Tendency to AVOID failure


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Situational Factors

A =

If the probability of success low (competing against the world champion) you will strive very hard to win (incentive high). You will be highly chuffed if you win.

B =

If the probability of success high (competing in local club match) you don’t need to try as hard to win (incentive low and expect to win easily). It is not so pleasing if you win.


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What can the coach do?

  • IMPROVE NEED AND MOTIVE TO ACHIEVE (Nach)

  • Increase positive reinforcement hence increasing pride and satisfaction

  • Ensure that goals are achievable

  • Ensure that at least some situations guarantee success

  • and subsequently gradually increase task difficulty in line with progress

  • Ensure that tasks are challenging

  • Ensure that the probability of success is good

  • Ensure that the incentive value of the success is high (is the race worth winning?)


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What can the coach do?

  • REDUCE TENDENCY AND MOTIVE TO AVOID FAILURE (NaF)

  • Reduce punishment hence lowering the chance of performer worrying about failure

  • Focus negative feedback on effort rather than ability. This avoids the performer tending to believe that causes of failure are internal (due to lack of ability for example) and reduces the risk of learned helplessness.

  • Avoid situations where defeat / failure is inevitable (such as performing against a much superior opponent)

  • if this is not possible alter the criteria for success (you will have succeeded if you only lose by 2 goals).


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Group Dynamics TIPS!

  • Be able to define the terms ‘group’ and ‘team’.

  • You need to understand Steiner’s model of group performance.

  • Be able to explain the Ringlemann effect and social loafing and how they damage the cohesiveness of a team.

  • Learn the factors affecting the cohesiveness of a group and how any breakdowns can be prevented.

  • Learn the characteristics of an effective leader.

  • Describe emergent and prescribed leaders.

  • You need to be able to understand the different perspectives on and theories of leadership.


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Groups

“Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction” (McGrath)

A collective identity

GROUPS

(Carron)

A sense of shared purpose

A clear structure for communication


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Group Cohesion

“The extent to which a group sticks together in pursuit of a common goal.”

TASK COHESION

The way team members

work together to

successfully complete

a task, e.g. a football team sets

Out to win by adopting attacking

Tactics at home & away matches

Vital in INTERACTIVE

Sports, e.g. hockey

SOCIAL COHESION

The personal relationships

within a group which relies

on individuals enjoying

social interaction, e.g. strong

Bond developed whilst on tour.

Vital in CO-ACTIVE sports,

e.g. track and field


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Group Dynamics

“The social processes operating within the group between individual members.”

  • TO ACHIEVE COHESION

  • Break down cliques

  • and sub groups

  • Separate pairs

  • Integrate isolates

SUB GROUPS

Small groups

contained within

the whole group

GROUP DYNAMIC

SOCIOGRAM

The best way of

illustrating the

group dynamics of

a team.

Team sports rely on

units within the team

Working closely

together


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Steiner’s Model

ACTUAL = POTENTIAL - LOSSES DUE TO

PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY FAULTY PROCESSES

(AP) (PP) (FP)

The maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is strongest

Factors that go wrong in team performance which impede/ prevent group cohesion e.g. co-ordination losses & motivational losses

The team performance at any given time (due to successful interaction)

GROUP COHESION IS THE FORCE THAT BINDS A GROUP TOGETHER, HELPING TO PREVENT FAULTY PROCESSES.


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Faulty Processes

  • Co-ordination Losses

  • These occur when the ‘operational effectiveness’ of the group cannot be sustained for the whole match.

  • Planned strategies/tactics may go wrong due to positional error or bad timing, e.g. Line out in rugby.

  • Motivation Losses

  • This may occur if the task is too difficult.

  • Also an individual might suffer loss of motivation causing them to withdraw effort and coast through that part of the game.

A motivation loss that leads to a reduction in effort is called SOCIAL LOAFING. This is called when an individuals efforts go unnoticed or when someone feels like the others on their team are not trying hard enough. People with low SC tend to be loafers.

A co-ordination loss that leads to a breakdown in team work is called the RINGLEMANN EFFECT. Problems with team co-ordination are more likely to increase as the number of team members increase.


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Group Locomotion

“ The process that explains the reasons why the group has formed. It symbolises the activity of the team.”

****Don’t always assume that good players make good leaders! Make sure you know the characteristics of a good leader****

For locomotion to be efficient there must be a LEADER to ensure the co-ordination of the team.


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Think of Woody from Toy Story!

Leadership

Determination

Understand the needs of others

Good communication skills

Highly developed perception skills

What makes a good

Leader?

Ambition

Experience

Vision

Good at making decisions

Empathy with team members


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Selection of a Leader

EMERGENT LEADERS: Already belongs to the group & selection is made formally, e.g. by vote or interview.

PRECRIBED LEADERS: Selected from outside of the group and is known as an external appointment.


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Leadership Theories

IS A LEADER BORN OR MADE?

  • TRAIT APPROACH: Leaders are born with the skills necessary to take charge……however, although certain traits may be helpful in leadership, they are not essential, so this theory is NOT A GOOD PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOUR.

  • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: The skills of leadership can be acquired by copying others and then developed through experiences. Copying successful role models is called ‘vicarious reinforcement.’ This DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE TRAIT PERSPECTIVE.

  • INTERACTIONIST THEORY: Leaders emerge because of inherited abilities (traits) and learned skills. Interactionist theory gives a MORE REALISTIC EXPLANATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOURS IN SPORT.


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Styles of Leadership

  • Autocratic Leaders (task orientated):

  • Tend to make all decisions

  • Motivated to complete a task as quickly and effectively as possible

  • Authoritarian style – they do not take into account the groups opinions

  • Does not share responsibility

  • Effective when quick decisions need to be made

  • Democratic Leaders (social/personal orientated):

  • Shares decisions and responsibilities with group

  • Interested in developing inter-personal relationships within the team

  • Effective in co-active sports

  • Laisser-faire Leaders:

  • Leader stands aside and allows the group to make their own decisions

  • Members of this type of group tend to be aggressive towards one another when mistakes occurred and they gave up easily.


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Fiedler’s Contingency Model

According to Fiedler, the correct style of leadership to adopt depends on the ‘favourableness’ of the situation.

AUTOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in both the MOST FAVOURABLE and the LEAST FVOURABLE situations.

DEMOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in MODERATELY FAVOURABLE situations.



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Multidimensional Model of Sports Leadership

  • CHELLANDURAIbelieved that the effectiveness of the group could be judged on:

  • The degree of success accomplished during a task

  • The extent to which the group experienced satisfaction while being led to the goal.

SITUATIONAL, LEADER AND GROUP MEMBER CHARACTERISCS interact to determine the behaviour adopted by the leader (these are ANTECEDENTS)

REQUIRED, ACTUAL AND PREFERRED BEHAVIOUR are 3 types of leader behaviour that would be guided by these antecedents.

If all three of the leader behaviours are CONGRUENT (coincide exactly) then members will be highly satisfied and produce high group performance.

Effective leadership has taken place if the ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR HAS SURPASSED THE SITUATIONAL DEMANDS AND THE STYLE HAS MET WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE GROUP.


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Mental Preparation TIPS!

  • You need to understand the meaning and links between commitment, self-confidence, concentration and control of emotion.

  • Be able to explain each term in the context of mental preparation for sport performance.

  • You must be able to identify and explain the relevant theories associated with each term.



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LINKED WITH AROUSAL!

Concentration

“A state of mind in which attention is directed towards a specific aim or activity.”

“Mistakes in top level sport happen not because technique is suspect, but because of attentional errors” (MARTENS)

When AROUSAL IS LOW the PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS and an excessive number of environmental cues enter into the information processing system.

SELECTIVE ATTENTION IS NOT in operation and CONCENTRATION ON RELEVANT INFORMATION IS DIFFICULT.

**********INFORMATION OVERLOAD OCCURS **********

LOW AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS LIMITED SELECTIVE ATTENTION =LACK OF CONCENTRATION


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Cue Utilisation Theory

This theory predicts ‘THE SELECTION OF THE MOST RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AT THE OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVEL’.

As arousal increases the perceptual field will adjust to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant cues/information. Selective attention is fully operational and the potential to concentrate is maximised.

OPTIMAL AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD AT IDEAL WIDTH SELECTIVE ATTENTIONS IN OPERATION =CONCENTRATION IS MAXIMISED!

Beyond this optimal threshold (over aroused), the perceptual focus narrows excessively and the relevant cues may be missed. The athlete appears highly agitated and panics. This condition is known as HYPER-VIGILANCE or PANIC.

HIGH AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD NARROWS RELEVANT CUES MISSED =HYPER-VIGILANCE & PANIC


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Think of the difference between a C & GA in Netball

NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES

All players have a preferred attentional style. To improve performance it is necessary to operate successfully in all styles.

  • NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES

  • BROAD

  • - a player concentrates on the whole game

    • - all players’ positions and movements

    • - open skills

  • NARROW

  • - the player concentrates on one aspect of the game

    • - the goalkeeper

    • - closed skills

  • INTERNAL

  • - the player decides to concentrate on his own technique

  • EXTERNAL

  • -the player focuses on the position of his opposite number

EXTERNAL

BROAD

NARROW

INTERNAL


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Emotional Control

AROUSAL, ANXIETY, STRESS and ACTIVATION all relate to MOTIVATION. Arousal will improve performance up to an optimal point, however this optimal threshold changes or ‘shifts’ for every individual and different situation.

  • Task Type

  • Simple/ Gross skills are performed better in high arousal, e.g. shot put

  • Complex/ fine skills are performed better in low arousal, e.g. spin bowling in cricket

  • Stage of Learning

  • Autonomous stage perform better in high arousal

  • Cognitive/ associative phase perform better in low arousal

  • Experience

  • Experienced performer is best in high arousal

  • Novice performer is best in low arousal

  • Personality

  • Extroverts perform best when arousal is high (seek stimulation of RAS)

  • Introverts perform best at low arousal (sensitive RAS system)


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Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)

Athlete A

(low ZOF)

In zone

(best performance)

Out of zone

Athlete B

(moderate ZOF)

Out of zone

In zone

(best performance)

Out of zone

Athlete C

(high ZOF)

Out of zone

In zone

(best performance)

Increasing Arousal

An athlete will enter the zone when arousal is at an optimum level and the situation matches the athlete’s strongest attentional style.


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Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)

Different people perform better under different (arousal) conditions:


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Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)………

Teachers and coaches should guide the performer towards their personal ‘optimal threshold’ or ‘individual zone of optimal functioning’.

EFFORTLESS PERFORMANCE

THE ATHLETE FEELS IN FULL CONTROL

IN THE

ZONE!

ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION OF THE PERFORMER IS FOCUSED

EXECUTION OF THE SKILL BRINGS ENJOYMENT AND SATISFACTION


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Anxiety

TRAIT ANXIETY: Genetically inherited. These people appear to be anxious at all times. This tends to be permanent and relatively stable.

STATE ANXIETY: This fluctuates in response to a given situation and is associated with arousal. It is a learned behavioural response, but can be controlled and manipulated to facilitate optimal performance.

(SPIELBERGER)

SOMATIC (physical) RESPONSE: Follows the inverted U hypothesis and refers to physiological changes. Somatic responses include excesses muscular tension, heart and respiration rates, resulting in impaired movement. This condition will not allow the performer to enter a ‘peak flow’ state.

COGNITIVE (psychological) RESPONSE: Reflects increasing worry about performance. They could become increasingly apprehensive and develop doubts and negative thoughts. Attentional changes occur which negatively impact on the information processing system. If the athlete experiences worry, he or she will not attain a ‘peak flow’ state.


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Anxiety

‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation.’ (MARTENS)

Perception of the situational

Demands.

e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my

team is to have the chance of winning.

Perception of ability to cope.

e.g. I am not as good as my

opponent

ANXIETY

Perception of the importance of the situation.

e.g. The result of this competition hinges

on this relay race.


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Anxiety Management

COGNITIVE METHODS

SOMATIC METHODS

IMAGERY

PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXTATION

THOUGHT STOPPING

POSITIVE TALK

BIOFEEDBACK

RATIONAL THINKING


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PEAK FLOW

PEAK FLOW: Optimal experience that facilitates best performance and is intrinsically valuable. (Csikzentmimalyi)

  • Peak flow occurs when somatic anxiety has reached an appropriate threshold and cognitive anxiety is low.

  • flow state is attained when the performer has a balanced perception of the demands of the situation and his/her ability to cope.

  • a high incentive value is to be gained from a challenge that is both realistic and attainable.

  • The focus of attention and concentration is maximised.

  • there is a self-confident belief that nothing could go wrong.

  • the situation suits the athlete’s strongest attentional style.

High somatic arousal

Excitement,

happiness

Anxiety,

anger

High cognitive

Arousal

anxiety

Low cognitive

Arousal

anxiety

Relaxation,

Drowsiness

Boredom

fatigue

Low somatic arousal

During these rare moments in sport, the athlete assumes control over all internal and environmental variables and a time of greatest happiness and self-fulfilment is experienced.


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Competitive Effects on Sport Performance TIPS!

  • You need to be able to recognise the difference between aggression, assertion and channelled aggression.

  • You need to understand the main theories of aggression.

  • Be able to describe how aggressive tendencies can be limited.

  • Understand the difference between social facilitation and social inhibition.

  • Describe the major theories of social facilitation and be able to link them to arousal.

  • Try to understand the homefield advantage phenomenon.

  • Be able to suggest strategies to combat social inhibition.


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Aggression

“Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means.” (BULL)

“Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another human being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.” (BARON)

HOSTILE (OR REACTIVE) AGGRESSION

Main aim is to harm and inflict injury.

Aggressive actions are outside the rules of the game

‘Hostile destructiveness’ (PARENS)

Hostile aggression involves anger.

This type of aggression needs to be eliminated from sport!

INSTRUMENTAL (OR CHANNELLED) AGGRESSION

Actions within the rules of the game.

Although PRIME motive is the successful execution of the skill, there is still the intention to harm.

Anger is not evident.

Present in many sporting situations.

ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR

No intention to harm.

Strictly within the rules and spirit of the game.

Robust, but functional play.

Primarily focused on completing the skill successfully.

‘Non-hostile self-protective mastery behaviour’ (PARENS, 1987)


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Antecedents of Aggression

HOSTILE CROWDS

FRUSTRATION CAUSED BY POOR PERFORMANCE, OPPOSITION OR REFS DECISIONS.

NATURE OF THE GAME

AGGRESSION

WIDE DIVISION BETWEEN SCORES

VENUE…AWAY TEAM

PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED GRUDGES OR SCORES TO SETTLE

EXTRINSIC REWARDS

HIGH AROUSAL LEVELS


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Theories of Aggression

INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE)

-Proposed by FRUED but

developed but LORENZ in 1966.

- ‘Aggression is genetically inherited

and that trait of violence lies within everyone

due to a basic instinct to dominate.’

- ‘Death instinct’ (FREUD)

- ‘Aggressive energy is constantly building

up and needs to be released’ (LORENZ)

  • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

  • Proposed by BANDURA, 1966 but

  • developed by LEAKEY.

  • Aggression is not biologically based

  • but is nurtured through environmental forces.

  • Learned by watching and copying

  • role models and it becomes an

  • excepted mode of behaviour if reinforced.

  • FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS

  • – INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE

  • - Proposed by DOLLARD.

  • - ‘Frustration develops when goal-directed

  • behaviour or NACH is blocked.’

  • It is instinctive to fulfil the need

  • to release frustration.

  • - Instinct theory – aggression is the goal.

  • - Aggression = successful = catharsis

  • - Aggression = unsuccessful = more frustration

  • AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS

  • (BERKOWITZ, 1969)

  • – INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE

  • - Builds upon DOLLARD’S work.

  • Frustration leads to an increase in arousal which,

  • in some situations will result in aggression.

  • Cues = baseball bats, violent acts being witnessed,

  • nature of the game will trigger aggression if

  • arousal is high.

  • Best players have the ability/temperament

  • to control frustration and arousal.


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Methods to eliminate aggression

  • Punish aggressive play.

  • Withdraw violent players from the situation.

  • Stress performance rather than the outcome.

  • Emphasise non-aggressive role models.

  • Make use of cognitive strategies to prevent aggressive play.

  • Positively reinforce non-aggressive behaviour and negatively reinforce aggressive behaviour.

  • Change athletes perceptions of the situation.

  • Implement stress management techniques.

  • Lower arousal levels


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Social Facilitation/Inhibition

SOCIAL FACILITATION: The presence of an audience positively increases arousal levels and performance is enhanced.

SOCIAL INHIBITION: A negative effect on performance is experienced due to the attendance of an audience.

  • TRIPLETT (1898) –

  • 1st Sport Psych Experiment:

  • The presence of others…

  • Arouses competitive drive

  • Releases energy

  • Increases the speed of performance

  • ZAJONC

  • - The ‘mere’ presence of others is sufficient to increase the arousal level of the performer.

  • This uses ‘drive theory’ to predict the effect of others on performance.

  • As arousal increases (as would happen when spectators are present), there is a greater likelihood of the dominant response occurring.

COTTRELL’S EVALUATION APPREHENSION

- In some circumstances the audience can have a calming effect.

- Increases in arousal were only present when the performer perceived that the audience was assessing performance.


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Social Facilitation/Inhibition

  • Homefield Advantage:

  • Large supportive home crowds have a positive effect on performance.

  • Most evident in indoor sports such as basketball.

  • Crowd gets close to the action, increasing audience influence. This is called the ‘proximity effect.’

  • Distraction/ Conflict Theory (Barron, 1986)

  • Individuals can only attend to a limited amount of environmental cues.

  • Spectators demand the same attention as other players, resulting in more competition for attentional space.

  • Complex actions would therefore be impaired in front of large crowds.

  • Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition:

  • Practice selective attention.

  • Use imagery, mental rehearsal to block out audience effects.

  • Ensure essential skills are over-learned and grooved.

  • introduce evaluative others into practice.

  • Raise athletes’ awareness of the zone of optimal functioning.

  • Incorporate stress management into training.

  • Appropriate use of attribution


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Attribution Theory TIPS!

  • You should be able to identify the reasons for success and failure in sport.

  • You need to understand ‘Weiner’s Attribution Model’ and be able to relate it to specific sporting situations.

  • Learn the definitions of ‘mastery orientation’ and ‘learned helplessness’.


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Attribution Theory

Attribution theory looks at the common reasons coaches and players give for their success or failure in sport.

  • LOCUS OF CAUSALITY

    • is the performance outcome caused by

  • - INTERNALfactors

    • under the control of the performer

    • ability / effort

  • - EXTERNALfactors

    • beyond the control of the performer

    • task difficulty / luck

Weiner’s Attribution Model

  • STABILITY

    • is the performance outcome caused by

  • - STABLEfactors

    • fixed factors which don’t change with time

    • ability / task difficulty

  • - UNSTABLEfactors

    • factors which can vary with time

    • effort / luck


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Attribution Theory

HIGH ACHIEVERS

attribute success to internal factors

and attribute failure to external factors

LOW ACHIEVERS

attribute success to external factors

and attribute failure to internal factors

HIGH ACHIEVERLOW ACHIEVER

motivation? high motive to achieve success low motive to achieve success

low motive to avoid failure high motive to avoid failure

focuses on pride on success focuses on shame and worry about failure

attributions ascribes success to stable ascribes success to unstable internal and controllable factors external uncontrollable factors

ascribes failure to unstable ascribes failure to stable external uncontrollable factors internal controllable factors

goals adopted adopts task oriented goals adopts outcome oriented goals

task choice seeks challenging tasks and avoids challenge, seeks very difficult competitive situations or very easy tasks / competition

performance performs well in front of performs badly in front of evaluative audiences evaluative audiences


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Attribution Retraining

The athlete has little control over ability, luck or task difficulty but has complete control over EFFORT. Effort is internal and unstable and can be changed by the performer.

The coach changes the usual external attributions for failure into internal, unstable controllable factors.

Attributing a lack of success to internal and unstable factors will help to prevent learned helplessness.

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

A belief acquired over time that one has no control over events

and that failure is inevitable. A feeling of ‘hopelessness.’