A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology. PERSONALITY. Revision Guide Mr Leighton. Personality TIPS!. Make sure you learn the specific definition of personality! Have awareness of the links between personality and sports performance.
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“The sum total of an individuals characteristics which make him unique” (Hollander).
“Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment to the environment” (Eysenck).
NARROW BAND APPROACH, GIRDANO, 1990
Strong desire to succeed,
Works fast, likes to control,
Prone to suffer stress
Works more slowly,
Does not enjoy control
Less prone to stress
Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
“All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment”
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT
-ve = Does not consider inherited behaviour (traits)
“People are born with established personality characteristics”
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY
+ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires
-ve = Does not take into account environmental influences. It is not a true indicator of behaviour.
CATTELL (1965) identified 16 personality traits
INTROVERT & EXTROVERT
“Behaviour occurs from the interaction between inherited traits and learned experiences”
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY × ENVIRNOMENT
Concentric Ring Theory (Hollander 1967)
Role Related Behaviour – Surface of personality
Typical Response – Your usual response in most situations
The Psychological Core – The ‘real you’
The boundary line of each layer gets wider as you get closer to the centre of the model which shows that each layer is harder to enter. As you move closer to the centre, your ‘real’ personality begins to surface
Psychodynamic Theory (Freud, 1933)
link with reality
ID, EGO & SUPER EGO interact to produce individual patterns of behaviour in sport.
Personality is formed from the conflict of SEEKING, RELEASING and INHIBITING behaviour.
****THINK OF AGGRESSION AS AN EXAMPLE!****
Eysenck’s Personality Types
Personality traits run across 2 continuums:
INTROVERT: unsociable, shy & nervous
EXTROVERT: sociable, outgoing & lively
STABLE: calm, even-tempered, controlled 7 logical
UNSTABLE: anxious, moody, unpredictable & illogical
Methods of Testing
The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.
ATTITUDES – A learned behavioural predisposition. (linked with personality)
& BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE
Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences.
Socialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people.
This is known as the information component
This concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object
This is known as the emotional component
If a person hold two ideas that oppose and conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. Emotional conflict is called DISSONANCE.
To reduce this feeling of dissonance, the impact of one of the conflicting ideas could be lessened and therefore an attitude would change.
Updating knowledge or providing a person with new information can change the cognitive component.
Providing a person with new and positive experiences can modify the affective component.
If a skill is simplified or if some form of guidance is used to make execution easier, the behavioural component of attitude can be changed.
Remember METHODS OF GUIDANCE from AS SKILL
You need to be aware of most effective way of persuading someone to change their attitude.
Would these people persuade you or would they just cause you stress?
2. The Message
Positive to initiate
3. The recipients
Easy to changed
an attitude if the
wishes to be
4. The situation
The presence of
You are a GCSE PE pupil. How could persuasive communication change your negative attitude towards cross country?
How could a physical education teacher change the negative attitude that a pupil may have towards swimming?
Achievement Motivation is a concept developed by sports psychologists to link PERSONALITY and COMPETITIVENESS.
The major issue centres on the extent to which an INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED TO ATTAIN SUCCESS.
Success in sport is measured against some type of COMPETITIVE GOAL.
THINK BACK TO GOALS FROM AS SKILL!
In any challenging situation, everyone will have both a ‘need to achieve’ and a ‘need to avoid failure’. Whichever feeling is stronger will determine whether the task is accepted or declined.
Competitive orientation is generated through personality and situational factors
A = TAS
someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure and will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky, e.g.
the hard route up a rock face
B = TAF
someone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve and will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved, e.g. the easy route up the rock face
TAS = Tendency to APPROACH success
TAF = Tendency to AVOID failure
If the probability of success low (competing against the world champion) you will strive very hard to win (incentive high). You will be highly chuffed if you win.
If the probability of success high (competing in local club match) you don’t need to try as hard to win (incentive low and expect to win easily). It is not so pleasing if you win.
“Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction” (McGrath)
A collective identity
A sense of shared purpose
A clear structure for communication
“The extent to which a group sticks together in pursuit of a common goal.”
The way team members
work together to
a task, e.g. a football team sets
Out to win by adopting attacking
Tactics at home & away matches
Vital in INTERACTIVE
Sports, e.g. hockey
The personal relationships
within a group which relies
on individuals enjoying
social interaction, e.g. strong
Bond developed whilst on tour.
Vital in CO-ACTIVE sports,
e.g. track and field
“The social processes operating within the group between individual members.”
the whole group
The best way of
group dynamics of
Team sports rely on
units within the team
ACTUAL = POTENTIAL - LOSSES DUE TO
PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY FAULTY PROCESSES
(AP) (PP) (FP)
The maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is strongest
Factors that go wrong in team performance which impede/ prevent group cohesion e.g. co-ordination losses & motivational losses
The team performance at any given time (due to successful interaction)
GROUP COHESION IS THE FORCE THAT BINDS A GROUP TOGETHER, HELPING TO PREVENT FAULTY PROCESSES.
A motivation loss that leads to a reduction in effort is called SOCIAL LOAFING. This is called when an individuals efforts go unnoticed or when someone feels like the others on their team are not trying hard enough. People with low SC tend to be loafers.
A co-ordination loss that leads to a breakdown in team work is called the RINGLEMANN EFFECT. Problems with team co-ordination are more likely to increase as the number of team members increase.
“ The process that explains the reasons why the group has formed. It symbolises the activity of the team.”
****Don’t always assume that good players make good leaders! Make sure you know the characteristics of a good leader****
For locomotion to be efficient there must be a LEADER to ensure the co-ordination of the team.
Understand the needs of others
Good communication skills
Highly developed perception skills
What makes a good
Good at making decisions
Empathy with team members
EMERGENT LEADERS: Already belongs to the group & selection is made formally, e.g. by vote or interview.
PRECRIBED LEADERS: Selected from outside of the group and is known as an external appointment.
IS A LEADER BORN OR MADE?
According to Fiedler, the correct style of leadership to adopt depends on the ‘favourableness’ of the situation.
AUTOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in both the MOST FAVOURABLE and the LEAST FVOURABLE situations.
DEMOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in MODERATELY FAVOURABLE situations.
SITUATIONAL, LEADER AND GROUP MEMBER CHARACTERISCS interact to determine the behaviour adopted by the leader (these are ANTECEDENTS)
REQUIRED, ACTUAL AND PREFERRED BEHAVIOUR are 3 types of leader behaviour that would be guided by these antecedents.
If all three of the leader behaviours are CONGRUENT (coincide exactly) then members will be highly satisfied and produce high group performance.
Effective leadership has taken place if the ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR HAS SURPASSED THE SITUATIONAL DEMANDS AND THE STYLE HAS MET WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE GROUP.
“A state of mind in which attention is directed towards a specific aim or activity.”
“Mistakes in top level sport happen not because technique is suspect, but because of attentional errors” (MARTENS)
When AROUSAL IS LOW the PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS and an excessive number of environmental cues enter into the information processing system.
SELECTIVE ATTENTION IS NOT in operation and CONCENTRATION ON RELEVANT INFORMATION IS DIFFICULT.
**********INFORMATION OVERLOAD OCCURS **********
LOW AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS LIMITED SELECTIVE ATTENTION =LACK OF CONCENTRATION
This theory predicts ‘THE SELECTION OF THE MOST RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AT THE OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVEL’.
As arousal increases the perceptual field will adjust to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant cues/information. Selective attention is fully operational and the potential to concentrate is maximised.
OPTIMAL AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD AT IDEAL WIDTH SELECTIVE ATTENTIONS IN OPERATION =CONCENTRATION IS MAXIMISED!
Beyond this optimal threshold (over aroused), the perceptual focus narrows excessively and the relevant cues may be missed. The athlete appears highly agitated and panics. This condition is known as HYPER-VIGILANCE or PANIC.
HIGH AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD NARROWS RELEVANT CUES MISSED =HYPER-VIGILANCE & PANIC
All players have a preferred attentional style. To improve performance it is necessary to operate successfully in all styles.
AROUSAL, ANXIETY, STRESS and ACTIVATION all relate to MOTIVATION. Arousal will improve performance up to an optimal point, however this optimal threshold changes or ‘shifts’ for every individual and different situation.
Out of zone
Out of zone
Out of zone
Out of zone
An athlete will enter the zone when arousal is at an optimum level and the situation matches the athlete’s strongest attentional style.
Different people perform better under different (arousal) conditions:
Teachers and coaches should guide the performer towards their personal ‘optimal threshold’ or ‘individual zone of optimal functioning’.
THE ATHLETE FEELS IN FULL CONTROL
ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION OF THE PERFORMER IS FOCUSED
EXECUTION OF THE SKILL BRINGS ENJOYMENT AND SATISFACTION
TRAIT ANXIETY: Genetically inherited. These people appear to be anxious at all times. This tends to be permanent and relatively stable.
STATE ANXIETY: This fluctuates in response to a given situation and is associated with arousal. It is a learned behavioural response, but can be controlled and manipulated to facilitate optimal performance.
SOMATIC (physical) RESPONSE: Follows the inverted U hypothesis and refers to physiological changes. Somatic responses include excesses muscular tension, heart and respiration rates, resulting in impaired movement. This condition will not allow the performer to enter a ‘peak flow’ state.
COGNITIVE (psychological) RESPONSE: Reflects increasing worry about performance. They could become increasingly apprehensive and develop doubts and negative thoughts. Attentional changes occur which negatively impact on the information processing system. If the athlete experiences worry, he or she will not attain a ‘peak flow’ state.
‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation.’ (MARTENS)
Perception of the situational
e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my
team is to have the chance of winning.
Perception of ability to cope.
e.g. I am not as good as my
Perception of the importance of the situation.
e.g. The result of this competition hinges
on this relay race.
PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXTATION
PEAK FLOW: Optimal experience that facilitates best performance and is intrinsically valuable. (Csikzentmimalyi)
High somatic arousal
Low somatic arousal
During these rare moments in sport, the athlete assumes control over all internal and environmental variables and a time of greatest happiness and self-fulfilment is experienced.
“Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means.” (BULL)
“Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another human being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.” (BARON)
HOSTILE (OR REACTIVE) AGGRESSION
Main aim is to harm and inflict injury.
Aggressive actions are outside the rules of the game
‘Hostile destructiveness’ (PARENS)
Hostile aggression involves anger.
This type of aggression needs to be eliminated from sport!
INSTRUMENTAL (OR CHANNELLED) AGGRESSION
Actions within the rules of the game.
Although PRIME motive is the successful execution of the skill, there is still the intention to harm.
Anger is not evident.
Present in many sporting situations.
No intention to harm.
Strictly within the rules and spirit of the game.
Robust, but functional play.
Primarily focused on completing the skill successfully.
‘Non-hostile self-protective mastery behaviour’ (PARENS, 1987)
FRUSTRATION CAUSED BY POOR PERFORMANCE, OPPOSITION OR REFS DECISIONS.
NATURE OF THE GAME
WIDE DIVISION BETWEEN SCORES
PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED GRUDGES OR SCORES TO SETTLE
HIGH AROUSAL LEVELS
INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE)
-Proposed by FRUED but
developed but LORENZ in 1966.
- ‘Aggression is genetically inherited
and that trait of violence lies within everyone
due to a basic instinct to dominate.’
- ‘Death instinct’ (FREUD)
- ‘Aggressive energy is constantly building
up and needs to be released’ (LORENZ)
SOCIAL FACILITATION: The presence of an audience positively increases arousal levels and performance is enhanced.
SOCIAL INHIBITION: A negative effect on performance is experienced due to the attendance of an audience.
COTTRELL’S EVALUATION APPREHENSION
- In some circumstances the audience can have a calming effect.
- Increases in arousal were only present when the performer perceived that the audience was assessing performance.
Attribution theory looks at the common reasons coaches and players give for their success or failure in sport.
Weiner’s Attribution Model
attribute success to internal factors
and attribute failure to external factors
attribute success to external factors
and attribute failure to internal factors
HIGH ACHIEVERLOW ACHIEVER
motivation? high motive to achieve success low motive to achieve success
low motive to avoid failure high motive to avoid failure
focuses on pride on success focuses on shame and worry about failure
attributions ascribes success to stable ascribes success to unstable internal and controllable factors external uncontrollable factors
ascribes failure to unstable ascribes failure to stable external uncontrollable factors internal controllable factors
goals adopted adopts task oriented goals adopts outcome oriented goals
task choice seeks challenging tasks and avoids challenge, seeks very difficult competitive situations or very easy tasks / competition
performance performs well in front of performs badly in front of evaluative audiences evaluative audiences
The athlete has little control over ability, luck or task difficulty but has complete control over EFFORT. Effort is internal and unstable and can be changed by the performer.
The coach changes the usual external attributions for failure into internal, unstable controllable factors.
Attributing a lack of success to internal and unstable factors will help to prevent learned helplessness.
A belief acquired over time that one has no control over events
and that failure is inevitable. A feeling of ‘hopelessness.’