Automated Systems Chapter 10
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT What is an automated system? • An automated system is a way of doing things automatically
Examples of Automated Systems Washing Machine CD Player Automatic Camera Toaster Vending Machine
Automated Systems in Industry Assembly lines Car manufacture Bread making Microprocessor manufacture Car wash
Why Use Automated Systems? • Speed • Accuracy • Repetitive Tasks • Efficiency • Safety
Sensors • A sensor is a device which detects a physical quantity: • Pressure • Heat • Light • Magnetic • Sound
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Feedback • Uses sensors to detect what is going on • Can react to problems • Information from sensors is called FEEDBACK
Feedback from Sensor sensor Traffic Lights Control Computer Control Information Traffic Lights with Feedback
Types of Robot Stationery • The robot stays at a fixed point all the time – eg on an assembly line • Mobile • The robot is guided from one location to another
Shoulder Wrist Elbow Tool Robot Anatomy • Some robots have parts which look human and are given human names • Each part of the arm is moved by a motor
Tools • You can get different types of tools dependant on the job the robot has to do • Gripper • Suction cup • Spray paint nozzle • Welding electrode
Programming Robots • Robots are controlled by a computer program • Robots can be programmed by example – this means a human will lead the robot arm through the steps needed to perform the task – this is also called LEAD THROUGH PROGRAMMING • Once all the steps have been programmed into the robot it can perform them over and over again in exactly the same way
Control Languages • The program which controls the computer is written in a programming language. • High level programming languages are similar to English • Other programming languages are used specifically for programming robots • Examples of programming languages are BASIC, COMAL, FORTRAN and PASCAL
Social Implications • Automated systems have taken over many manual jobs – computers are quicker and cheaper than manual labour • Workers may be retrained to operate or maintain computer controlled systems • But some may lose their jobs • Computers are reliable and last a long time so little human contact is needed
Health and SafetyNegative Side • Long times operating a computer can cause Repetitive Strain Injury or eye strain. • Moving parts of automated systems must be covered to prevent injury to humans • People working with robots must be very careful
Health & Safety – Positive Side • Because humans no longer do hazardous jobs industrial accidents should be reduced • Robots can be used in environments which are hazardous or even deadly for humans
Quality Control • Quality can be kept at a consistent standard • The last item produced will be of the same quality as the first • Automated systems do not become tired or bored which can result in a reduction in quality and quantity of goods produced
Economic Implications (costs) • Automated systems are expensive to install • But, costs can be recovered by increased productivity • Automated systems do not demand pay rises • Automated Systems do not demand good working conditions
Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs) • Magnetic Guidance – AGV follows wires laid into the factory floor • Light Guidance – AGV follows lines painted on the factory floor • Sensors – AGV detects objects or obstacles in its way by using front and back sensors • Remote-controlled – Used when it would be unsafe to send in humans – bomb disposal
Real-time Processing • A program that is constantly running and ready to take action • If the sensors on an AGV detect an object then the program must react immediately to stop the vehicle otherwise a person could be hit and injured
Computer Aided Design • CAD is a way of using a computer to design the structure or appearance of an item on the screen • Uses of CAD: • Car Design • Kitchen Design • Road Design • Housing
Computer Aided Manufacture • CAM is using a computer to control the production process • Advantages: • Faster and more accurate • Waste is minimised • Simple to operate and requires less skilled operators
Simulation • A way of using computers to model something that happens in real life • An engineer would know the effect of various loading conditions on a bridge without actually having to build it • An aircraft designer would know what effect changing the shape of the wings would have on the aircraft without having to build the plane
Virtual Reality • A method of reproducing the outside world digitally within a computer system • The world is then displayed to the user through a headset • The user can interact with the virtual environment using a data glove
Interface • Robots are connected to the computer by an interface. The interface sends the signals to the robot telling it what processes to perform • These signals are usually Analogue
Digital Devicesand Signals • A digital device has 2 states, either on or off, e.g. a light switch is either on or off • A digital signal is an electrical signal; a high voltage = on = 1;and a low voltage = off = 0,and can be represented as a series of 1’s and 0’s i.e. ons and offs.
Analogue Devicesand Signals • An analogue device has a range of values, e.g. a speedometer measuring a range of speeds; or a light sensor; or a pressure sensor. • An analogue signal varies in voltage and if the voltage reaches a certain value then the sensor can be triggered to be “on”.
Analogue & Digital Signals • Computer only understands binary or machine code. Most devices are analogue measuring a range of values. So, an Analogue to Digital (A to D) converter is required. • But, when a computer sends signals to control an analogue device then a Digital to Analogue (D to A) converter is required.
Analogue signal must be converted to digital Sensor Feedback Traffic Control Computer Interface Lights Digital signal Analogue to Digital Control Information
Introducing Automated Systems • A Systems Analyst looks at how a job is done manually • Decides if the job could be done better by an automated system • Designs an automated system to do the job • System is installed, evaluated and monitored.
ROM Software • Stationery robots store their programming on disk or tape • Robot can learn • Mobile robots store their programming in ROM chips • Instructions are not lost when turned off • Loads very quickly
Embedded Systems • An embedded system is a tiny computer stored inside a larger piece of equipment • Washing Machine • Car • Mobile Phone • They process data in real time
Control Languages • A language specially designed for robot control • GRASP • MOVE • WAIT • TURN
Intelligent Robots Expert System + Robot = Intelligent Robot
Bomb Disposal • Bomb disposal robots make a dangerous job a little less hazardous. They're designed to search for, locate and neutralize explosive devices.
Nuclear Environments • American scientists developed Pioneerbecause of the disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The robot was designed to withstand large doses of radiation and was used for clearing debris.
Factory of the Future? • 24 hour a day production • No heat/light • Noisy • Dark • Cold • Technicians contained within a control room
Task • Write a short essay on Automated Systems: • Introduction • Advantages • Disadvantages • Conclusion • You may add illustrations
Expert Systems and Robots • We already know about Expert Systems from our study of databases • An expert system can apply hundreds of rules (learnt from a human expert) to a particular field of knowledge • Expert systems combined with robots could be used for such things as satellite repair in space.