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Egypt – The Nile River Valley. Civilization developed in a river valley with fertile soil Nile is the world’s longest river Nile river begins in East Africa and flows 3,500 miles north towards the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt – The Nile River Valley. Nile has two main sources

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Egypt – The Nile River Valley


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egypt the nile river valley
Egypt – The Nile River Valley
  • Civilization developed in a river valley with fertile soil
  • Nile is the world’s longest river
  • Nile river begins in East Africa and flows 3,500 miles north towards the Mediterranean Sea
egypt the nile river valley1
Egypt – The Nile River Valley
  • Nile has two main sources
      • White Nile flows from Lake Victoria
      • Blue Nile flows from modern-day Ethiopia
      • The two rivers meet in present day Sudan (before known as Nubia or Kush)
  • Nile flows through the Sahara Desert
      • Sahara is the largest desert in the world
  • Nile was difficult to travel by ship
      • Contained cataracts, or rocky rapids
upper and lower egypt
Upper and Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt

Lower Egypt

Southern Egypt

Narrow Valley lined with cliffs

Cataracts

Upstream from Mediterranean Sea

Northern Egypt

River here is slower

River carries silt, mineral particles that make soil fertile

Contains river delta, an area of sediment deposited at the mouth of the river

black and red land
Black and Red Land

Black Land (Kemet)

Red Land

Narrow strip of dark, fertile soil around banks of the Nile river

Positive: Yearly flooding left behind a layer of rich, fertile soil

Negative: Floods were unpredictable (natural disasters) and droughts (shortage of water) made crops fail.

Vast deserts on the sides of Black Land

Deadly place of hot, burning sands.

a civilization develops
A Civilization Develops
  • 7,000 years ago: People start growing grains around Nile river
  • Irrigation system produced food surplus
  • Farmers’ surplus crops were collected as taxes
  • Local rulers used surplus to buy cloth, jewelry, and luxury goods
  • Farmers’ surplus supported full-time artisans, who had time to perfect their skills
  • Cities brought together wealthy and skilled people.
  • Why could some Egyptians take jobs other than farming?
slide7

The desert surrounded Egypt on the West, East, and South.

Up North, the Mediterranean Sea protected them. Egypt was allowed to evolve in its own way.

egyptian religion
Egyptian Religion
  • Believed Gods controlled everything
    • Ex. Flooding of the Nile river
    • Ex. Death of a child
  • Egyptians built temples and offered prayers and gifts
  • Early Egyptians were polytheists (hundreds)
  • Many Gods associated with animals
osiris
Osiris
  • King of the afterlife
  • Symbolized the yearly drought and flooding of the Nile.
  • Gave Egypt civilization.
  • Married his sister, Isis
  • Conspirators killed him by chopping him up into pieces
  • Isis, his wife, found the pieces and put him back together
ra re amun ra
Ra / Re / Amun-Ra
  • King of the Gods
  • Sun god, King of the Gods.
  • Hawk head with solar disk on top.
  • Sometimes seen as the creator of men (Egyptians called themselves "the cattle of Ra”)
  • Made daily journey across the sky
  • Died in the West each night and was reborn in the East the next day.
  • How could the movement of the Sun affect the beliefs of early Egyptians?
horus
Horus
  • Falcon headed
  • The Pharaoh was his earthly embodiment.
  • Son of Osiris and Isis
  • Seth, his brother, is always trying to hurt him
  • His sons take care of the organs during the mummification process
slide13
Isis
  • Isis was the sister/wife of Osiris
  • May be one of the judges of the dead
  • Has magical powers
  • The purest example of the loving wife and mother
anubis
Anubis
  • Head of a jackal
  • Guides the dead to the underworld and weighs their heart (bad deeds make your heart weigh more)
  • Works with Osiris in the underworld
  • Mummification god
ammut
Ammut
  • “Eater of the Dead”
  • She stands by the scales of the hearts and eats the hearts of the wicked
  • Head of a crocodile, body of a leopard, hind legs of a hippo
thoth
Thoth
  • Moon God
  • Scribe (records the weight of the hearts in the underworld)
  • Invented writing
slide17
Bast
  • Cat-headed
  • Goddess of love and childbirth
  • Cats are sacred (many catswere mummified in her honor)
slide18
Bes
  • Protector of households, mothers, children, and childbirth
  • Later regarded as defender of everything good
  • Images were kept in homes
  • Tasks: killing snakes, fighting off evil spirits, aiding women in labor, protect soldiers before battle
sekhmet
Sekhmet
  • Lion headed
  • Breathes fire against her enemies
  • Her breath created the desert
  • Delivers punishment to the gods
  • Protector of pharaohs and leader in war