-Solar Energy- Thin Film Photovoltaic. | DFN 2004|Spring 2010|Gavin Munozemail@example.com |. http://architecture2030.org/the_problem/buildings_problem_why. Problem : The U.S. Energy Consumption in the Building Sector.
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|DFN 2004|Spring 2010|Gavin Munozfirstname.lastname@example.org|
http://architecture2030.org/the_problem/buildings_problem_whyhttp://architecture2030.org/the_problem/buildings_problem_whyProblem: The U.S. Energy Consumption in the Building Sector
Architecture 2030 has become THE movement toward a carbon neutral society, creating ways of life independent from fossil fuels while at the same time lowering the high volume of CO2 emissions in the air, making the people of the U.S. environmental conscious individuals . It is startling to realize that our very own profession is the key reason for these alarming statistics, and it is now up the very people in the building sector to step up and provide a solution. Approximately 40 % of U.S. firms have adopted the 2030 Challenge and growing
Denis Hayes once stated that, “No country uses as much energy as is contained in the sunlight that strikes just it’s buildings”, summarizing the importance of sunlight as a continuous natural energy source. The magnitude of solar energy as a potential energy source is seen when one recognizes that the total solar energy falling on the face of the earth (approximately 7.45x10^17 kwh annually) is 15,000 times greater that the world’s consumption (of about 0.5x10^14 kwh annually).
Chopra, Kasturi. “Why thin film solar cells”. thin film solar cells (1983)
Since the basic crystalline silicon solar cell (or First Generation)
was developed in the 1950’s there have been little or no major changes, and with shortages of silicon and high prices affecting the finished costs, the newly emerging thin-filmed solar cells (or Second Generation) that use less crystalline silicon due to newly found semi-conducting seems to be immerging. Thin Filmed technology holds out the real promise of more price competitive systems, because they can be manufactured with dramatically less material, shorter supply chains and cheaper, faster processes.
|amorphous silicon|cadmium telluride (CdTe)|Indium Gallium Di-Selenide (CIGS)|
- The term “amorphous” is commonly applied to non-crystalline- materials prepared by deposition from gases.
Pioneered by United Solar Ovonics (NasdaqGS: ENER) which sells under the brand Uni-Solar ,this technique relies on a small amount of amorphous silicon alloy and accounts for about 60% of the thin film PV made today. These systems have been sold for several years as building-integrated PV offering the advantage of nearly undetectable systems on rooftops for both commercial and residential buildings. Overall efficiency of around 13%, still lower than crystalline silicon but improving. http://www.uni-solar.com/
CdTe modules are cheaper and faster to produce than the amorphous silicon with efficiency at around 10%. The process makes better use of raw materials and since Cadmium telluride solar panels require 100 times less semiconductor material than high-cost crystalline silicon panels it has lower production costs to $1 per Watt. Cadmium salts as well as other heavy metal salts are highly toxic, but when handled with care the benefits of CdTe photovoltaic technology outweigh the risks.
Global Solar Energy based out of Arizona is on the leading edge of Copper Indium DI-Selenide (CIGS) and aims to develop silicon-saving or -replacing processes by using alternative semiconductor materials.Global Solar achieved 10% average solar cell efficiency—the first CIGS company to reach this milestone in a production environment
|Solar Collectors|Disconnect Switch|Data System|DC Inverter|AC Circuit Breaker
The easiest way to introduce photovoltaic's into the building sector is not to consider them as a bolt on product but rather as actual replicated parts of a building
To the Left is Brightsource’s 20 MW Power Plant in Daggett, California
To the Right is NRG Energy’s 21 MW Power Plant in Blythe, CA
To the Left is a Concept design for a durable “unfolding” solar designed tent
To the right is United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland “Solar Skin”