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Unit 2 1648-1815

Unit 2 1648-1815

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Unit 2 1648-1815

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  1. Unit 2 1648-1815 Chapter 8: Consolidation of Political Power

  2. Big Picture • 1648 (Peace of Westphalia: end of religious wars) to 1815 (Congress of Vienna: end of Fr. Rev and Napoleonic wars) another time of tremendous change. • States are struggling with political questions, rapid economic change, growing secularism, and nationalism. • Continuing to question what had once been basic assumptions about life

  3. Political • Absolutism • Enlightenment redefines government’s role

  4. Economic • Industrialization creates a new standard for econ “leader” nations

  5. Popularity of Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment • Scientific knowledge spreads • Emphasis on rationalism

  6. Population Change • Big pop. Spike in 16c

  7. Chapter 8: Consolidation of Political Power

  8. centralized states. constant competition Church has lost power What is Happening?

  9. Two Models: Absolutism and ConstitutionalismAbsolutism: Where? • Monarchs had complete control over kingdom- no limits to power • Spain, France, Prussia, Austria, Russia

  10. Characteristics Philosophy of • The King IS the country, not subordinate to nobles or an assembly. • The king appoints/controls the bureaucracy. Large standing army. • Totalitarian • Jean Bodin/Thomas Hobbes wrote during civil wars in Fr and Eng- both believed the state (king) needed to be strong to protect the people from themselves • Bishop Bossuet- “divine right of kings”

  11. Decline of Spain • Inquisition • Trade fell 60% • Eng and Dutch • Taxes very high for peasants • “price revolution”

  12. Economic Difficulties • In Book

  13. Political and Military Decline • Defeat of Spanish Armada • lost Netherlands • Treaty of Pyrenees 1658 (ended Fr/Sp conflict from 30 years war- France took Spanish Netherlands)

  14. Revolt and Secession • Portugal - independent 1668 • rebellions in Spanish holdings

  15. Absolutism in FranceHenry IV Louis XIII • Bourbon dynasty • Navarre • Weakened nobility by not allowing feudal nobility (nobility of sword) to hold bureaucratic positions- created new noble titles (nobility of robe) for those- therefore those nobles loyal to king • R. 1610-1643 • Richelieu

  16. Cardinal Richelieu • Rebuilt royal treasury • created intendant system for collecting revenue • A politique (like Henry IV) • Began to push down Huguenots • taking their rights to fortify towns and have independent armies

  17. Duke of Sully Intendant System • Defined Mercantilism- use colonies to create favorable balance of trade (use colonies for raw materials/markets- don’t allow them an ind. Econ.) • Reformed tax system- encouraged gov’t to improve transportation system to improve trade • Civil servants (not noble- bourgeoisie) who report directly to king. Created greater efficiency in gov’t- more centralized control

  18. The Fronde • In Book

  19. Cardinal Mazarin • Used army against population • made him (and king) unpopular

  20. The Absolute Monarchy of Louis XIV • Golden age of France • French Culture dominated Europe • France had the largest population in Europe • big army, and collect a lot of taxes (taille- head tax)

  21. Divine Right • In book

  22. Building a Centralized Bureaucracy • Continued and expanded intendant system- applied it to regional/local gov’t. • Blocked power of noble assemblies (parlements- which had been created in Fronde) by refusing to allow them to meet- never called Estates General

  23. Corvee • Forced labor for king • work 1 month of the year on royal projects. • peasants conscripted into the royal army

  24. Versailles • Often called a “theater state” of formalized ritual. Also a “pleasure prison” for nobility- kept so entertained and frivolous, they didn’t notice they had lost their power

  25. Mercantilism • Jean Baptist Colbert as finance minister • Mercantilism

  26. Bullionism • Goal of country is as much gold/silver as possible. • Originated French trading companies (French East and West India Co) to make $$ and a French Merchant Marine to protect French interests abroad. Sugar of Caribbean and early revenue stream

  27. Weaknesses • Created poor peasant conditions- and high taxes • Louis keeps a massive army- but virtually no navy • Huguenots are not allowed to leave France for new world

  28. Court Culture at Versailles • 60% of royal revenue EACH YEAR spent on building and maintaining Versailles

  29. French Classicism • A French twist on the Renaissance ideals of order and symmetry- while keeping much of the lushness and drama of Baroque architecture. (grand and restrained at same time) • Nicholas Poussain- master painter of frescos of Versailles • Also extended into other arts: plays by Jean Baptiste Moliere and Jean Racine entertained nobles, as did the first French Operas

  30. Revocation of Edict of NantesEdict of Fontainebleau Jansenists • 200,000 Huguenots left France- • French middle classes declined • Catholics who either sympathized with or had some Calvinist ideas

  31. Louis XIV’s Wars • This was a professional army

  32. Balance of Power System • Alliances shifting • Start of 2nd 100 years of Conflict between Eng and Fr

  33. War of Devolution 1667-1668 • Louis invaded Spanish Netherlands • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle- French got to keep towns on border of Spanish Netherlands

  34. Dutch War 1672-78 • French convinced the Eng to make an econ alliance • Dutch opened their dykes- flooded their country. Prussia/Austria joined Dutch side • Peace of Nijmegen- France gets Burgundy

  35. Nine Years War (War of League of Augsburg) 1688-1697 • France moved against the Hapsburg dynasty • Ended in tie

  36. War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714 • Philip of Anjou, French, became ruler of Spain • Dutch/Austria/Prussia join against France (Grand Alliance) • Peace of Utrecht 1714- most important since Peace of Westphalia. Philip of Anjou gets throne- but neither he nor successors can ever claim throne of France. Britain gets Asiento (slave trade) from Spain- as well as Gibraltar and Majorca.

  37. Destroyed the French economy France is bankrupt 20% of French population injured/killed in battle- or starved Results of Wars

  38. Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe • Austria, Prussia, and Russia dominated Central and Eastern Europe • All 3 used absolutism- Austria least, Russia most centralized in terms of royal power

  39. Different from France • powerful nobles, and serf population • Austria all that’s left of Hapsburgs • Prussia growing • Russia growing • French middle class • nobility decreased power • E. E.-little centralization • multi-ethnic • multi-religious • Not Prussia • warfare pretty constant

  40. Serfdom • Revival in East • Majority of peasant population • Econ stays agricultural • few large towns/cities to promote new ideas

  41. Consolidation of Austria • Held together by Hapsburg • Lots of land • Not a lot of power

  42. Leopold I 1658-1705 • Catholic • Schoenbrunn • Siege of Vienna 1683.