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SOME RECENT INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS RELEVANT TO COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION. John M. Logsdon Space Policy Institute Elliott School of International Affairs The George Washington University October 11, 2007. CHINA.
John M. Logsdon
Space Policy Institute
Elliott School of International Affairs
The George Washington University
October 11, 2007
Nigcomsat-1 launched May 13, 2007 by CZ-3B. Payload was It is equipped with four C-band , 14 Ku-band transponders, eight Ka-band and two L-band transponders.
VENESAT-1 to be launched in 2008
These are first sales of Chinese-integrated communications satellites to foreign customers. China manufactures bus and integrates satellite; Thales Alenia provides ITAR-free communications payload
These transactions have geopolitical as well as commercial implications (e.g., access to resources, political leadership)PACKAGE DEALS
To GTO, up to14 tons
To LEO, up to 25 tons
Two new engines
120 t KO/LOX
50 t H/LOX
Three core stages, ranging from 2.5m to 5m in diameterNEXT GENERATION LAUNCH VEHICLE
Current launch site for GEO launches located at Xichang, which is at 28 degrees north longitude
Press reports say “The site will launch China’s next-generation rockets and associated spacecraft into synchronous orbit about the Earth, along with the launching of space stations and deep space probes. It will also launch manned lunar missions.”
http://www.itwire.com/content/view/14574/1066/NEW LAUNCH SITE
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Wenchang Satellite Launch Center
In 2005, ESA Ministers approved the Ariane5 Consolidation and Evolution Program (ACEP) as next step in keeping Ariane viable
New European Space Policy, approved on May 22 by all EU and ESA member states, says that “independent and cost-effective access to space needs to remain a strategic goal for Europe, which will look first to its launcher resources.”
However, this policy statement does not rule out the launch of European satellites on non-European launchersASSURED EUROPEAN ACCESS TO SPACE
Technology control an issue; Soyuz launch complex separated from main Ariane facilities
First flight of smaller Vega launch vehicle also planned for 2009
All three vehicles will be managed for commercial customers byArianespaceADDITIONS TO EUROPEAN LAUNCHER FLEET
The craft would take off and land using conventional jet engines. At an altitude of ~12km, rocket engines will be ignited to give it the acceleration to go above 100km, with three minutes of weightlessness
EADS-Astrium is seeking co-investors for the project. With a 2008 start, the first flight might be possible by 2012POSSIBLE EUROPEAN ENTRY INTO SUBORBITAL PERSONAL SPACEFLIGHT MARKET
No launches for private sector customers. Indian Department of Space created ANTRIX Corporation in 2002 as its commercial arm.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) failed on July 10, 2006 after three prior successes. Returned to flight with September 2, 2007 launch
India is upgrading GSLV to be able to launch 4 ton payloads to GTOINDIA
Operation of H-IIA has been transferred to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, with the hope that vehicle can be marketed as commercial launcher. No contracts yet. (http://www.h2a.jp/about_us/index.html)
Upgraded H-IIB scheduled for first launch in 2009; able to carry 8 tons to GTOJAPAN