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Social Studies Benchmark Review. February 27, 2012 Mr. Durfee , Mrs. Hillyard and Coach Lindemann. Colonization & Revolution. Applachian Mountains were used to mark the edge of American lands in the Proclamation Line of 1763.

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social studies benchmark review

Social Studies Benchmark Review

February 27, 2012

Mr. Durfee, Mrs. Hillyard and Coach Lindemann

colonization revolution
Colonization & Revolution
  • Applachian Mountains were used to mark the edge of American lands in the Proclamation Line of 1763.
  • Triangular trade routes involved the direct exchange of rum for slaves.
  • Colonists moved to a representative form of government because of the the increase in population and their desire for political participation denied them in England
  • Puritans came to America to start a religious community
  • A farming (agricultural) economy in the southern colonies was created because of the mild climate, rich soil and long growing seasons.
revolution
Revolution
  • Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to encourage more people to support American Independence
  • Stamp Act, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, and Intolerable Acts were factors that lead to the American Revolution.
  • Battle of Saratoga was a turning point because it led France to make a treaty with America against England.
  • Samuel Adams was the leader of the SONS OF LIBERTY
constitution
Constitution
  • The creation of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches of government were to create a SEPARATION OF POWERS.
  • Free speech was protected to give all parts of society a voice in government.
  • The Virginia Plan was based on a state’s population and the New Jersey Plan was based on equal representation for each state which led to the Great Compromise.
  • Magna Carta’s clause #39 had a direct impact on the Bill of Rights because it talked of right to trial by a jury before being convicted of a crime.
  • Changes (amendments) HAD to pass both houses of Congress by 2/3 and be approved by ¾ of state legislatures.
  • Articles of Confedersation denied the powers of taxations, trade regulation, and tariffs (tax on imported goods) to Congress because they feared a strong central government.
  • Popular soveriegnty meant that the source of power for the government came from the people of the U.S.
  • The Bill of Rights includes the right to free speech, religion, free press, and peacable assembly.
  • Unalienable rights are rights that all people have and that can never be taken.
landmark supreme court cases
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
  • Marbury V. Madison= Judicial Review
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford=slaves were property and not citizens.
early america
Early America
  • ¾ of Americans were farmers
  • Disagreement over issues led to the creation of political parties such as the Federalists and Democratic Republican (Farmers vs. Manufacturing).
  • Geo. Washington warned against foreign alliances, debt, and political parties in his farewell address.
  • U.S. land size doubles after Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803.
  • Jefferson and John Adams served as Vice-Presidents and later Presidents of the U.S.A.
pre civil war
Pre-Civil War
  • Jackson moved the Cherokee west to Oklahoma to give white settlers Native American land in the southeast U.S.
  • NULLIFCATION CRISIS centered around states declaring federal laws unconstitutional.
  • Southern states disliked high tariffs because they led to higher prices for manufactured goods.
  • Steamboats changed life along U.S. rivers by making manufactured items more accesible.
  • Mid 1800’s Americans moved west after gold was discovered in California.
  • New states in the 1850s were admitted after determining whether they would be a free or slave state which created many arguments.
  • TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO gave land to the U.S. from Mexicao as a result of the Mexican-American War.
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • Steam powered riverboats and trains
  • Rise in immigration
  • Technological advances
  • Economic Growth
  • Cheap goods
  • Child labor
  • BY 1850 the majority of Americans lived in rural areas in the Northeast, Midwest and the South.
  • Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical Reaper changed crop farming by reducing the labor needed for picking or harvesting crops.
  • As more people moved to the cities to work in factories, environment was changed to suit the needs of humans.
  • As interchangeable parts were produced, more products became available to consumers due to decreased cost.
  • Plantation owners received the greatest benefit with the invention of the cotton gin because they needed to buy less slaves to harvest cotton.
  • More inventions meant more travel options for Americans to get to and from all areas of the U.S.