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Unit Two/Ch. 16 AP European History Ms. Tully - UHS. The Scientific Revolution: Astronomy. Focus Question. What did Copernicus, Kepler , Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe?.

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unit two ch 16 ap european history ms tully uhs
Unit Two/Ch. 16

AP European History

Ms. Tully - UHS

The Scientific Revolution: Astronomy

focus question
Focus Question
  • What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe?
background to the scientific revolution
Background to the Scientific Revolution
  • Revival of classical works by Renaissance humanists
  • Renaissance artists – anatomy, mathematics
  • Exploration  technical advancements
  • Printing press
  • Rediscovery of ancient mathematics
  • Renaissance magic  desire to understand & dominate nature
  • Geocentric conception  concentric spheres w/ fixed earth at center
nicolaus copernicus 1473 1543
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Spent 24 years developing heliocentric conception On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
  • Challenged Ptolemaic system  sun at center
  • New uncertainty of human role
  • Condemned by Protestants & Catholics
tycho brahe 1546 1601 johannes kepler 1571 1630
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) & Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Brahe  Danish noblemanw/ a castle on island
  • 20 years of detailed observations
  • Brahe’s assistant  Johannes Kepler
  • Kepler gained possession of Brahe’s data
  • Three Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Eliminated idea of circular motion & crystal spheres
galileo galilei 1564 1642
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • First European to use telescope in astronomy
  • Contradicted theory that everything is made like the earth
  • The Starry Messenger (1610), Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican
  • Condemned by Roman Inquisition  put under house arrest for 8 years
  • Developed law of inertia
isaac newton 1642 1727
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Created synthesis of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo
  • Englishmen, studied at Cambridge
  • Invented calculus, studied composition of light, law of universal gravitation
  • Principia (1686)
  • President of Royal Society in 1727
  • Universality of law could mathematically explain all motion in the universe
  • Dominant world view until 20th C