Sports medicine
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Sports Medicine. Emergency Situations. Obstructed airway Cardiopulmonary emergencies Unconscious athlete Hemorrhage Fractures Shock Hyperthermia Hypothermia. Obstructed Airway. An individual’s airway can become partially or totally blocked by:

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Emergency situations
Emergency Situations

  • Obstructed airway

  • Cardiopulmonary emergencies

  • Unconscious athlete

  • Hemorrhage

  • Fractures

  • Shock

  • Hyperthermia

  • Hypothermia


Obstructed airway
Obstructed Airway

  • An individual’s airway can become partially or totally blocked by:

    • A solid foreign object (mouth guard, bridgework, gum, tobacco, mud…etc.)

    • Fluid (blood, saliva, vomit)

    • Swelling in the throat

    • Back of tongue

  • An obstructed airway prevents adequate oxygen from being exchanged in the lungs and can lead to cyanosis and death.


Partial airway obstruction
Partial Airway Obstruction

  • When a person has a partial airway obstruction there is still some air exchange in the lungs.

  • If the individual is able to cough forcefully, do not interfere.

  • An ineffective cough or a high pitched noise during breathing indicates a more severe obstruction and should be treated as a total airway obstruction.


Total airway obstruction
Total Airway Obstruction

  • In a total airway obstruction, no air is passing through the vocal cords, so the individual is unable to speak, breathe, or cough.

  • ABCs

    • Assess unresponsiveness

    • Open the Airway

    • Establish Breathing

    • Establish Circulation


Cardiopulmonary emergencies
Cardiopulmonary Emergencies

  • Cardiac arrest may result from strenuous physical activity, direct trauma, electrical shock, alcohol or substance abuse, suffocation, drowning, or heart abnormalities.

  • Signs and symptoms include chest and/or arm pain, pain in the neck, jaw, teeth, upper back, and abdomen, shortness of breath, and nausea.

  • Follow CPR protocol if breathing stops.


Unconscious athlete
Unconscious Athlete

  • Head injuries are the leading cause of of loss of consciousness in sports activity.

  • Unconsciousness identifies an individual who lacks sensory stimuli.

  • HOPS

    • History of Injury

    • Observation and inspection

    • Palpation

    • Special Tests


Hemorrhage
Hemorrhage

  • Severe hemorrhage can result in decreased blood volume and blood pressure, either of which can become fatal.

  • External hemorrhage

    • Apply pressure directly to the wound (preferably with a sterile gauze pad).

    • Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart.

    • Cleanse, debride, and disinfect wound.

    • Cover wound with an occlusive dressing.

  • Internal hemorrhage

    • Activate EMS immediately.

    • Monitor vital signs.

    • Anticipate vomiting


Fractures
Fractures

  • A fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone that is classified as open or closed depending upon whether the skin surface is penetrated.

  • Signs of fracture include swelling, bruising, deformity, point tenderness, crepitus, or disability.

    • Remove any clothing or jewelry near the injury site.

    • Check the distal pulse beyond extremity fractures.

    • Immobilize the joint above and below the fracture.

    • Apply minimal in-line traction.

    • Splint firmly.

    • Transport.


Shock
Shock

  • Shock can occur to some degree in any injury involving pain, bleeding, internal trauma, fracture, or spinal injury.

  • Signs of shock include a rapid, weak pulse and rapid, shallow breathing.

    • Activate EMS immediately

    • Elevate feet and legs if no head or neck injury is suspected.

    • Maintain body heat, remove any wet clothing.

    • Keep individual quiet and still.

    • Avoid rough and/or excessive handling.


Hyperthermia
Hyperthermia

  • Hyperthermia occurs when internal heat production is no longer in balance with external heat loss.

  • The hypothalamus initiates heating or cooling mechanism to maintain a relatively constant body core temperature between 97°-100° F.

  • Hyperthermia may be preceded or accompanied by heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and/or heat stroke.

    • Immediately move the person to a cool place.

    • Remove all equipment and unnecessary clothing.

    • Cool the body.

    • Keep the individual supine.

    • Elevate feet.

    • Cool with fluids, preferably an electrolyte solution.


Preventing heat emergencies
Preventing heat emergencies

  • Acclimatization

  • Clothing

  • Fluid hydration

  • Weight charts

  • Temperature/humidity

  • Practice schedules


Hypothermia
Hypothermia

  • Hypothermia occurs when the body is unable to maintain a constant core temperature.

    • Take individual indoors and protect them from any further refreezing.

    • Provide warm fluids that do not contain caffeine or alcohol.

    • Carefully, rapidly rewarm the entire body.

    • Monitor vital signs, EMS may be necessary.


Preventing cold emergencies
Preventing cold emergencies

  • Check weather conditions

  • Clothing

  • Stay dry

  • Breathe through the nose

  • Stay hydrated

  • Keep your back to the wind

  • Avoid contact with cold surfaces


Moving an injured participant
Moving an injured participant

  • The safest method to move an injured participant is with a stretcher or spine board.

  • Unless a spinal injury has been totally ruled out, always assume one is present.

  • Ideally, five individuals will move the participant with the “captain” (the most medically trained individual) stabilizing the head and giving commands.


Moving an injured participant1
Moving an injured participant

  • Place all extremities in axial alignment.

  • If the participant is lying prone, have four individuals log roll the participant into a supine position while the “captain” stabilizes the head and neck in the position they were found.

  • Place the spine board as close to the participant as possible.

  • Each person is responsible for one segment; shoulders, hips, knees, feet. The “captain” remains with the head and neck.

  • On command, move the individual on to the board in a single motion.

  • Four people should lift the spine board and transport the participant. The “captain” remains with the head and neck.


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