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PAGMaW. Plasma Arc Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste Thesis Presentation April 2 , 2014 Celerick Stephens Masters Management (Marketing) Masters Engineering Science (Sustainability). Agenda. PAGMaW. Plasma gasification process overview Benefits of plasma gasification of waste

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pagmaw

PAGMaW

Plasma Arc Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste

Thesis Presentation

April 2, 2014

Celerick Stephens

Masters Management (Marketing)

Masters Engineering Science (Sustainability)

pagmaw1

Agenda

PAGMaW
  • Plasma gasification process overview
  • Benefits of plasma gasification of waste
  • Application and benefits of technology
  • Modeling the process
  • Next steps
what is plasma

Overview

What is plasma
  • Fourth state of matter
    • Ionized gas in which the number of free electrons nearly equals the number of free ions
    • Electric arcs
    • Neon bulbs
    • Lightning
what is plasma gasification

Overview

What is Plasma Gasification
  • Gasification is the process of changing one state of matter into a useful gas
  • Plasma gasification is applying high-energy gas (plasma) to gasify any solid
  • Plasma gasification
    • Severs molecular bonds of solids
    • Releases elemental gases and solids
    • Vitrifies precipitate solids
    • Allows for high temperature recombination of gases
plasma gasification of waste

Benefits of Waste Gasification

Plasma Gasification of Waste
  • Reduces/eliminates need for solid waste disposal
    • Vitrified waste is reduced (>90%)
    • Produces low-heating value “natural” gas (syngas) useful for power/heat production
  • Reduces carbon footprint
  • Reduces release of harmful products
    • Dioxins nearly eliminated
    • Vitrified wastes make harmful agents inert
plasma process in real world usage

Application of Technology

Plasma Process In Real-World Usage
  • 13 commissioned sites worldwide
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • United States
      • Hawaii*
  • Proven energy production exceeds energy requirements
scaling the technology

Application of Technology

Scaling the Technology
  • Unique application of technology on a smaller scale From 250 tons/day to 7 tons/day (or smaller)
  • Community Waste Disposal
    • Reduces waste transport energy
    • Reduces electrical transmission waste
    • Reduces cost of operation
    • Reduces electrical consumption
    • Supplements community heating

Fast Facts

  • Americans generate 4 lbstrash/day
    • 60% of MSW is landfilled (145 million tons)
    • We can bury Rhode Island each year
    • We use 1.5 billion gallons of fuel/yr to haul trash (1.4 million average daily drivers)
  • 10% of the power produced is wasted in delivery (400 million MW-hrs/year)
    • US Line loss can power
      • NYC for 35 yrsor
      • France for 1 year (10th largest consumer of electrical power in the world)
the future need

Application of Technology

The Future Need
  • Economists show the United States as the Middle Class Model
  • Trends indicate unsustainable nature in energy consumption
  • Power cannot be created fast enough to match demand
  • Waste cannot be disposed fast enough to match demand
scaled plasma gasification of community waste

Modeling the Process

Scaled Plasma Gasification of Community Waste

Functional Basis

  • Waste stream
  • Plasma process
  • Power process
  • Heat recovery
gasification process

Thermochemical Analysis

Gasification Process

Chemical equilibrium evaluation

  • Molecular decomposition of the waste stream
    • Proximate analysis
    • Ultimate analysis
  • Mass Balance
    • Molecular balance of constituents
      • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
      • Soot (metals/glass)
      • Water (moisture content)
  • Heat Balance
    • Heat capacities
    • Heats of formation
    • HHV refuse derived fuel
  • Products of equilibrium is syngas
      • CO, CO2, H20, H2, CH4
results

Gasification Modeling

Results
  • Process independent of gasification temperature
  • Process scalable to waste stream input
  • Optimized waste recycling content apparent
scaled distributed plasma gasification of community waste

Facility Modeling

Scaled-Distributed Plasma Gasification of Community Waste
  • Waste stream
  • Plasma process
  • Power process
  • Heat recovery
next steps

Completing the Analysis

Next Steps
  • Complete energy cycle analysis
    • H2 Fuel Cell Integration
    • Waste stream size to support facility (net zero)
    • Waste stream size to support community (net zero)
  • Document challenges
    • Facility complexity
      • Noise
      • Location
      • Maintenance
    • Complexity of byproduct recycling
      • High temperature materials discharge
      • Waste gas reuse
      • Sour gas elimination