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Controlling Infection - . Nature of Micro-organisms. Microorganisms. What are they? Tiny organisms found in the air, on our skin, in our food, and on everything we touch that you cannot see without a microscope Good Nonpathogenic, keep a balance in our environment Bad

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controlling infection

Controlling Infection -

Nature of Micro-organisms

microorganisms
Microorganisms
  • What are they?
    • Tiny organisms found in the air, on our skin, in our food, and on everything we touch that you cannot see without a microscope
  • Good
    • Nonpathogenic, keep a balance in our environment
  • Bad
    • Pathogenic, cause illness, infection, or disease
microorganisms1
Microorganisms
  • Anaerobic
    • Able to grow and function without oxygen
  • Aerobic
    • Require oxygen to survive
microorganisms2
Microorganisms
  • Most that cause illness like warm temperatures (like the body temp)
  • All need moisture
  • Most prefer a dark area to grow

What organisms in biology class like the same things??

Mold and Fungus

microorganisms3
Microorganisms
  • Nonpathogenic Organisms
    • Used for good things like making foods and beverages
    • Decompose organic material in nature
    • Breakdown food elements in the digestive system
    • Help control the growth of pathogenic organisms
microorganisms4
Microorganisms
  • Pathogenic Organisms
    • When organisms leave their normal environment in the body and move into other areas and become harmful
    • Examples:
      • E.coli
      • Salmonella
      • Bacteria – Staph
      • Viruses
microorganisms5
Microorganisms
  • Conditions Affecting the Growth of Bacteria

1. Food

– bacteria grow well in the

food left in a patient’s room

2. Moisture

– bacteria grow well

in moist places

microorganisms6
Microorganisms
  • Conditions Affecting the Growth of Bacteria

3. Temp

  • 170 degrees F - kills most bacteria
  • 50-110 degrees F - most disease causing

bacteria grow rapidly

  • 98.6 degrees F – normal human body temp where bacteria can thrive easily
  • 32 degrees F – low temperatures slow their activity and growth rate
microorganisms7
Microorganisms
  • Conditions Affecting the Growth of Bacteria

4. Oxygen

- Aerobic – need oxygen

- Anaerobic - don’t need oxygen

5. Light

- Darkness – bacteria become active and multiply

- Light – when exposed to direct sunlight bacteria become sluggish and die rapidly

6. Dead and Living Matter

- Saprophytes – bacteria that live on dead matter or tissues

- Parasites – bacteria that live on living matter

microorganisms8
Microorganisms
  • How they affect the body
  • Produce toxins
    • Food poisoning causes fatigue, diarrhea, and vomiting
    • Tetanus toxins cause damage to the nervous system
    • Histamines cause allergic reactions like runny noses or more severe such as anaphylactic shock
microorganisms9
Microorganisms
  • How they are spread
  • Direct contact
  • Indirect Contact
  • Airborne
  • Oral Route
  • Insects and Pests
microorganisms10
Microorganisms
  • How do we protect from them?
  • Standard Precautions and Transmission-Based Precautions
    • Will cover later 
microorganisms11
Microorganisms
  • Signs and Symptoms of an Infection
  • Generalized (example: cold and flu)
    • Headache, fatigue, fever, increased pulse and respiration
  • Localized (staph infection)
    • Redness, swelling, heat, possible drainage, pain
microorganisms12
Microorganisms
  • So what is the point???
  • Microorganisms are all around us.
  • Some are good and some are bad
  • We need to understand them and how they spread to protect ourselves and our patients
  • Learn how to control and treat them
  • As a healthcare worker it is your responsibility to practice good techniques to prevent the spread of infection