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המהפיכה המדעית של המאה ה-17. 1543 - 1700. מקופרניקוס ועד ניוטון. 1543. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ( על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים ). Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). De humani corporis fabrica ( על מבנהו ותפקודו של גוף האדם ). 1543.

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מקופרניקוס ועד ניוטון


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    1. המהפיכה המדעיתשל המאה ה-17 1543 - 1700 מקופרניקוס ועד ניוטון

    2. 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) De humani corporis fabrica (על מבנהו ותפקודו של גוף האדם)

    3. 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים)

    4. 1543 Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) De humani corporis fabrica(על מבנהו ותפקודו של גוף האדם)

    5. 1543 Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) De humani corporis fabrica(על מבנהו ותפקודו של גוף האדם)

    6. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium For philosophical reasons, Copernicus clung to the belief that all the orbits of celestial bodies must be perfect circlesand to a belief in the unobserved crystalline spheres. This forced Copernicus to retain the Ptolemaic system's complex system of epicycles, to account for the observed deviations from circularity and to square his calculations with observations. Despite Copernicus' adherence to these aspects of ancient astronomy, his radical shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric cosmology was a serious blow to Aristotle's science—and helped usher in the Scientific Revolution.

    7. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium … helped usher in the Scientific Revolution. TychoBrahe(1546-1601) Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Issac Newton (1643 - 1727)

    8. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium For philosophical reasons, Copernicus clung to the belief that all the orbits of celestial bodies must be perfect circlesand to a belief in the unobserved crystalline spheres. This forced Copernicus to retain the Ptolemaic system's complex system of epicycles, to account for the observed deviations from circularity and to square his calculations with observations.

    9. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium For philosophical reasons, … This forced Copernicus to retain … Despite Copernicus' adherence to these aspects of ancient astronomy, his radical shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric cosmology was a serious blow to Aristotle's science—and helped usher in the Scientific Revolution.

    10. For philosophical reasons, … This forced Copernicus to retain … This radical shift … was a serious blow to Aristotle's science—and helped usher in the Scientific Revolution. • מה הייתה המוטיבציה של קופרניקוס לפיתוח התורה ההליוצנטרית? מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? • איך התקבלה התורה ההליוצרנטרית על רקע השליטה העקבית של ראיית העולם האריסטוטלית?

    11. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? – בעיית האקוונט – מקובלת על היסטוריונים רבים כהסבר Commentariolus(before 1514): “Yet the widespread [planetary theories], advanced by Ptolemy and most other [astronomers], although consistent with the numerical [data], seemed likewise to present no small difficulty. For these theories were not adequate unless they also conceived certain equalizing circles, which made the planet appear to move at all times with uniform velocity neither on its deferent sphere nor about its own [epicycle's] center…Therefore, having become aware of these [defects], I often considered whether there could perhaps be found a more reasonable arrangement of circles, from which every apparent irregularity would be derived while everything in itself would move uniformly, as is required by the rule of perfect motion. 

    12. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? Noel Swerdlow (1973): “The Derivation and First Draft of Copernicus's Planetary Theory: A Translation of the Commentariolus with Commentary”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society , Vol. 117, No. 6, Symposium on Copernicus (Dec. 31, 1973) , pp. 423-512

    13. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? Noel Swerdlow (1973): “The common belief that Copernicus did away with the equant, or wished to do away with the equant, is simply false, for it was as fundamental to his planetary theory as to Ptolemy's, and even in the time of Brahe and Kepler, there was no observational distinction between the models of Ptolemy and Copernicus. The motivation for Copernicus's model was entirely physical: to preserve the uniform rotation of spheres”.

    14. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? André Goddu, A., 2010, Copernicus and the Aristotelian Tradition: Education, Reading, and Philosophy in Copernicus's Path to Heliocentrism, Leiden: Brill.

    15. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? Goddu (2010): “Whether or not Copernicus accomplished that goal of eliminating the equant, or whether or not it made any observational difference is immaterial because he believed that the equant had to be eliminated, and he gave that as a motivation for his reform of astronomy. Moreover, Copernicus believed that he had succeeded in eliminating the equant, as did his contemporaries. It was not until the end of the sixteenth century that Maestlin discovered the hidden equant in Copernicus's models”.

    16. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה? Noel Swerdlow: “The motivation for Copernicus's model was entirely physical: to preserve the uniform rotation of spheres”.

    17. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) 1543 Andreas Ossiander (1498-1552) Ad Lectorem It is the duty of an astronomer to compose the history of the celestial motions through careful and expert study. Then he must conceive and devise the causes of these motions or hypotheses about them. Since he cannot in any way attain to the true causes, he will adopt whatever suppositions enable the motions to be computed correctly ... The present author has performed both these duties excellently. For these hypotheses need not be true nor even probable. On the contrary, if they provide a calculus consistent with the observations, that alone is enough ...

    18. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) 1543 Andreas Ossiander (1498-1552) Ad Lectorem … And if any causes are devised by the imagination, as indeed very many are, they are not put forward to convince anyone that they are true, but merely to provide a reliable basis for computation. However, since different hypotheses are sometimes offered for one and the same ... the astronomer will take as his first choice that hypothesis which is the easiest to grasp. The philosopher will perhaps rather seek the semblance of the truth. But neither of them will understand or state anything certain, unless it has been divinely revealed to him ... Let no one expect anything certain from astronomy, which cannot furnish it, lest he accept as the truth ideas conceived for another purpose, and depart this study a greater fool than when he entered.

    19. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) 1543 Andreas Ossiander (1498-1552) Ad Lectorem … However, since different hypotheses are sometimes offered for one and the same ... the astronomer will take as his first choice that hypothesis which is the easiest to grasp. http://www.mogi-vice.com/Pagine/Downloads.html(14-15)

    20. Cosmographia; Petrus Apianus, 1539

    21. Noel Swerdlow: “The motivation for Copernicus's model was entirely physical: to preserve the uniform rotation of spheres”.

    22. GeorgPeuerbach(1423-1461) Theoreticae Novae Planetarium; 1450

    23. GeorgPeuerbach(1423-1461) Theoreticae Novae Planetarium; 1450 • realistic approach • no cautions distinguishing physical orbs from geometrical orbs • no indication that they are merely introduced as calculating devices

    24. Aristotelian Averroists attack Peurbach’sphysicalist interpretation of Ptolemy • Introduces unacceptably many different centers to the universe. • The celestial bodies could not be perfect spheres if they were made into epicycles and eccentrics. • A single, simple body may have only one circular motion, which eccentrics and epicycles are supposed to violate

    25. Aristotelian Averroists attack Peurbach’sphysicalist interpretation of Ptolemy Noel Swerdlow: “The motivation for Copernicus's model was entirely physical: to preserve the uniform rotation of spheres”.

    26. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium For philosophical reasons, Copernicus clung to the belief that all the orbits of celestial bodies must be perfect circlesand to a belief in the unobserved crystalline spheres.

    27. 1543 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) • Book III • “Precession of Equinoxes” and the apparent motion of the Sun http://www.mogi-vice.com/Pagine/Downloads.html(16) “The Age of Aquarius”

    28. 1543 De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) Bernard Goldstein, “Historical Perspectives on Copernicus’s Account of Precession”, Journal for the History of Astronomy, 25 (1994), 189–197.

    29. 1543 De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) Bernard Goldstein, “Historical Perspectives on Copernicus’s Account of Precession”, Journal for the History of Astronomy, 25 (1994), 189–197. … the motion of the fixed stars was a recognized problem in the astronomical community of the time whereas geocentrism was not. … in most cases, no new observations were sought because a new theory was “tested” against an earlier theory which was deemed successful in accounting for the observed phenomena but was inadequate in some other respect (e.g., it wiolated the principle of uniform circular motion)>

    30. 1543 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) Book III – the significance of discovery voyages • “We should not heed certain Peripatetics who ... assert that that the earth emerges from water, because its weight is not equally distributed due to its cavities, its center of gravity being different from its center of magnitude.”

    31. 1543 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium(על הסיבובים של הגופים השמימיים) Book III • “This will be more clear when we add the islands discovered in our time under the kings of Spain and Portugal, and especially America, named after their finder, a ship’s captain. On account of its still undisclosed magnitude this is thought to be another inhabited world, and there are also many other islands, heretofore unknown. So we should wonder even less that the Antipodes exist.”

    32. מה הייתה השאלה שהתורה ההליוצנטרית הייתה עבורה התשובה?

    33. The central issue for Copernicus was to provide a robust answer to contemporary skeptical attacks against astrology. 

    34. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium … helped usher in the Scientific Revolution. TychoBrahe(1546-1601) Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Issac Newton (1643 - 1727)

    35. מהפכות מדעיות ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי המשתתפים • Peuerbach, New Theory of thePlanets(1450) • Brahe, Introduction to the New Astronomy  (1602) • Kepler, The New Astronomy (1609) • Bacon, New Organon (1620) • Galileo, Discourse on Two New Sciences (1638)

    36. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים • Pierre Duhem, The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory (1914) • George Sarton,Introduction to the History of Science, (1927-48.) • AlexandreKoyré, ÉtudesGaliléennes (1939),

    37. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים • Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science (1948) Since that [scientific] revolution overturned the authority in science not only of the middle ages but of the ancient world—since it ended not only in the eclipse of scholastic philosophy but in the destruction of Aristotelian physics—it outshines everything since the rise of Christianity and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements, within the system of medieval Christendom. … it looms so large as the real origin both of the modern world and of the modern mentality that our customary periodisation of European history has become an anachronism and an encumbrance.

    38. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים • Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution (1996) There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it.

    39. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים • Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) • Normal Science • Anomalies • Paradigms • Revolutionary Science • Incommensurability • Scientific Community

    40. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים • Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) Big-Picture History vs. “anthropological immersion in local sites of knowledge-making”

    41. מהפכות מדעיות • ה"מהפיכה" בעיניי ההיסטוריונים Internalists vs. Externalists "המדען הדגול" ותפקידו בהיסטוריה: מי מוביל את מי? מדע מדייבלי – מדע רנסאנסי – מדע בארוקי

    42. Bertolt Brecht, Life of Galileo (1939)

    43. 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium 1616 De revolutionibusis placed in the Catholic Index of Prohibited Books 1633 Galileo condemned for “teaching, holding and defending” the Copernican theory

    44. Part I. The New Nature: 1. Physics and foundations 2. Scientific explanation 3. The meanings of experience 4. Proof and persuasion

    45. Part II. Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge: 1. The man of science 2. Women of natural knowledge 3. Markets, piazzas, and villages 4. Homes and households 5. Libraries and lecture halls 6. Courts and academies 7. Anatomy theaters, botanical gardens, and natural history collections 8. Laboratories 9. Sites of military science and technology 10. Coffeehouses and print shops 11. Networks of travel, correspondence, and exchange

    46. Part III. Dividing the Study of Nature: 1. Natural philosophy 2. Medicine 3. Natural history 4. Cosmography 5. From alchemy to 'chemistry' 6. Magic 7. Astrology 8. Astronomy 9. Acoustics and optics 10. Mechanics 11. The mechanical arts 12. Pure mathematics