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WATER

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  1. WATER • NUTRIENT: SUBSTANCE THAT PROMOTES THE GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, • FUNCTION, REPRODUCTION OF A CELL OR AN ORGANISM • THE PRINCIPAL NUTRIENTS OF ALL FEEDING STUFFS ARE: WATER, • ORGANIC MATTER, INORGANIC MATTER. • WATER: 2/3 OF THE ANIMAL BODY • SOURCES: DRINKING, FEED, METABOLIC WATER • FACTORS GOVERN THE AMOUNT OF WATER THE ANIMAL NEED TO DRINK: • ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE • TYPE OF FEED (HIGH LEVEL OF PROTEIN OR MINERAL) INCREASE • URINARY • TOTAL DM CONSUMPTION • PRODUCTION

  2. WATER • FUNCTION OF WATER IN ANIMAL BODY: • CELL RIGIDITY AND ELASTICITY • SOLVENT ACTION • HYDROLYTIC REACTIONS • IONIC AND OTHER REACTIONS • LUBRICATION • TRANSPORT • ABSORPTION OF FOOD MATERIAL FROM INTESTINE • REABSORPTION FROM KINDEY TUBULES • TRANSPORT OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFF FROM PLACE TO PLACE • DRAINAGE AND EXCRETION OF THE END PRODUCT OF METABOLISM • MANUFACTURE OF VARIOUS SECRETION • CARRYING THE HORMONES TO THE PLACE OF ACTIVITY • RESPIRATORY FUNCTION • REFRACTIVE MEDIUM • HEAT REGULATIONS

  3. MINERAL • MINERAL: 3-5% BERAT TUBUH • ADA 30 SAMPAI 40 JENIS MINERAL DALAM TUBUH • Ca dan P: SEKITAR 75% (49% Ca, 27%P, 24% MINERAL LAIN) • SEBAGIAN BESAR TERDAPAT DALAM TULANG DAN GIGI • 86,0% Ca, 97,9%P, dan 86% TOTAL MINERAL TERDPT PD RANGKA

  4. ESSENTIALITY OF ANY MINERAL ELEMENT • IT IS PRESENT IN ALL HEALTHY TISSUE • ITS CONCENTRATION IS FAIRLY CONSTANT • ITS WITHDRAWAL INDUCES REPRODUCIBLY THE SAME • STRUCTURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES REGARDLESS • OF THE SPECIES STUDIED • ITS ADDITON EITHER PREVENTS OR REVERSES THESE • ABNORMALITIES • THE ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY DEFICIENCY ARE ALWAYS • ACCOMPANIED BY PERTINENT, SPECIFIC BIOCHEMICAL • CHANGES • THESE BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES CAN BE PREVENTED OR CURED • WHEN THE DEFICIENCIES ARE PREVENTED OR CURED

  5. MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR APPROXIMATE CONCENTRATION IN THE ANIMAL BODY

  6. ORGANIC CHELATE • CHELATES THAT AID IN TRANSPORT AND TO STORE METAL IONS (Histidin, Cystine, EDTA) • CHELATES ESSENTIAL IN METABOLISM ( Hb, Vit.B12, Cytochrom) • CHELATES WHICH INTERFERE WITH UTILIZATION OF ESSENTIAL CATIONS (Ca-Oxalat, Zn-phytat)

  7. MINERALS ARE NECESSARY IN THE ANIMAL BODY FOR THE FOLLOWING REASON • IN TISSUE GROWTH AND REPAIR • FORMATION OF NEW BONE AND TISSUE • FORMATION OF HAIR, HOOFS, HORN • A SMALL AMOUNT IS PRESENT IN ALL SOFT TISSUE • BLOOD CELL ALSO CONTAIN SMALL AMOUNT OF MINERAL • ACT AS BODY REGULATORS OR AID IN THE FORMATION • OF BODY REGULATORS • MAINTENANCE OF PROPER OSMOTIC PRESSURE IN THE BODY • FLUIDS • MAINTENANCE OF NEUTRALITY OF BLOOD AND LYMPH • MAINTANANCE A PROPER PHYSIOLOGICAL BALANCE • IN MILK PRODUCTION

  8. COMPOSITION OF FRESH BONE WATER, 45% • CALSIUM, 36% • PHOSPHORUS, 17% • MAGNESIUM, 0.8% • OTHERS, 46.2% ASH, 25% PROTEIN, 20% FAT, 10%

  9. CALCIUM • FUNCTIONS: • BONE FORMATION INCLUDING TEETH AND GROWTH • CLOTTING OF BLOOD • REGULATION OF HEARTBEAT AND WORKING OF MUSCLE • MAINTENANCE OF ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM • CONTROL OF IRRITABILITY OF NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM • MAINTENANCE OF SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY OF CELL MEMBRANE • SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: • RICKETS IN YOUNG AND OSTEOMALACIA IN ADULTS • MILK FEVER • REDUCTION IN MILK YIELD • THIN CELLED EGGS WITH POOR HATCHABILITY

  10. CALCIUM • FACTORS INFLUENCE TH E DEGREE OF ABSORPTION: • CONCENTRATION OF CALCIUM IN THE DIET • INTESTINAL pH • PROTEIN IN THE DIET • PRESENT OF FREE FATTY ACIDS • PHYTIC ACID, IRON, and OXALATES • VITAMIN D and PHARATHYROID • SOURCES: • LEGUMES LIKE ALFALFA • BONE MEAL • OYSTERSHELL • DICALCIUM PHOSPATE

  11. PHOSPHORUS • FUNCTIONS: • CONSTITUENT OF BONE AND TEETH • CONSTITUENT OF HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND • PHOSPHORYLATION PROCESS • PHOSPHOLIPIDS ARE CONSTITUENTS OF ALL CELL MEMBRANE • and ARE ACTIVE DETERMINANT OF CELLULAR PERMEABILITY • DNA and RNA • SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: • RICKETS IN YOUNG AND OSTEOMALACIA IN ADULTS • PICA • STIFF JOINTS and MUSCULAR WEAKNESS • LOW FERTILITY and LOW MILK PRODUCTION

  12. PHOSPHORUS • ABSORPTION: • ACTIVE TRANSPOT • INTERFIER BY Mg, Fe, Al • IN CEREAL GRAIN PRESENT IN THE FORM OF PHYTATES • SOURCES: • CEREAL GRAIN • BY-PRODUCT • OIL CAKED • MILK and MILK PRODUCT

  13. POTASSIUM PRESENT IN INTRACELLULAR FLUID • FUNCTIONS: • MAINTENANCE OF ACID BASE EQUILLIBRIUM • MAINTENANCE OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE • NERVE TRANSMISSION • HEART BEAT RELAXATION • ACTIVATES CERTAIN ENZYMES • NECESSARY FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN • METABOLISM • AID IN THE UPTAKE OF CERTAIN AMINO ACIDS BY THE CELL • SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: • WEAK EXTREMITIES • POOR INTESTINAL TONE WITH POOR INTESTINAL DISTENSION • CARDIAC WEAKNESS • WEAKNESS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCLE

  14. POTASSIUM METABOLISM: POTASSIUM IS THE CHIEF CATION OF THE INTRACELLULAR FLUID AND PLAYS VERY IMPORTANT PART ALONG WITH SODIUM, CHLORIDE, AND BICARBONATE IONS IN THE OSMOTIC REGULATION OF THE BODY FLUID DIETARY EXCESS OF POTASSIUM IS NORMALLY EXCRETED FROM THE BODY CHIEFLY IN THE URINE HIGH INTAKE INTERFERES WITH THE ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM SOURCES: POTASSIUM CONTENT OF PLANT IS GENERALLY VERY HIGH

  15. SODIUM PRESENT IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID • FUNCTIONS: • MAINTENANCE BODY FLUID pH • REGULATE BODY FLUID VOLUME • NERVE TRANSMISSION • MUSCLE CONTRACTION • FUNCTION IN THE PERMEABILITY AND CARRIER OF THE CELL • SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: • GROWTH FAILURE and REDUCE THE UTILITATION OF DIGESTED • AND ENERGY • DEHYDRATION: DECREASES PLASMA AND BODY FLUID VOLUME • VASCULAR DISTURBANCE: DECREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT, • DECREASE ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND INCREASE HEMATOCRIT • CORNEAL KERATINATION • NERVUS DISORDER • EGG PRODUCTION IS ADVERSELY AFFECTED

  16. SODIUM METABOLISM: REGULATED BY ALDOSTERON (ADRENAL CORTEX) WITH PROMOTE THE REABSORPTION OF SODIUM FROM THE KIDNEY TUBULES. IN THE ABSENCE OF ALDOSTERON, EXCRETION OF SODIUM IS INCREASED AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY ENSUE. • SOURCES: • ALL ANIMAL PRODUCTS • MARINE PRODUCTS • COMMON SALT

  17. SULFUR • FUNCTIONS: • COMPONENT OF SULFUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS • COMPONENT OF HORMONE INSULIN • COMPONENT OF BIOTIN AND THIAMINE METABOLISM: THE METABOLIC IMPORTANCE OF SOME SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS RESIDE IN THE EASY INTERCONVERTIBILITY OF DISULFIDE AND SULFHYDRYL GROUPS IN OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTIONS • SOURCES: • SULFUR CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS

  18. MAGNESIUM • FUNCTIONS: • AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF BONE • ACTIVATES ENZYMES LIKE PHOSPHATASE AND THE • PHOSPHORYLATION REACTION INVOLVING ATP: GLUCOKINASE, • PHOSPHOGLUCOKINASE, CREATINE TRANSPHOSPHORYLASE, • ARGININE TRANSPHOSPHORYLASE • SOURCES: • GREEN FODDERS • PERICARP OF CEREAL GRAIN, BRAN • SEED CAKE • MAGNESIUM OXIDE (50 mg)

  19. MAGNESIUM • SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: • TETANY • REDNESS OF EXPOSED SKIN SURFACE • HYPERIRITABILITY • CARDIAC ARHYTHMIA • MARKED VASODILATATION • HYPOMAGNESEAMIC TETANY • CONVULSION • HYPERIRITABILITY • TWITCHING OF THE FACIAL MUSCLE • STAGGERING GAIT AND ULTIMATELY TETANY • SLOW GROWTH  LETHARGIC

  20. IRON • FORMS: • 65% PRESENT IN THE FORM OF HAEMOGLOBIN • 4% IN THE FORM OF MYOGLOBIN • 1% IN THE FORM OF VARIOUS HAEM ENZYMES • 0.1% IN THE FORM OF TRANSFERIN • 15% STORED IN THE FERRITIN OR HOMOSIDERIN • 10-15% OTHER FORMS • FUNCTIONS: • TRANSPOT OF OXIGEN TO THE TISSUES • MAINTENANCE OF OXIDATIVE ENZYMES SYSTEM WITHIN • THE TISSUE CELLS • MELANIN FORMATION

  21. IRON • ABSORPTION FROM GI: • FEED: FERRIC IRON (Fe+++)  STOMACH: FERROUS FORM (Fe++) • ABSORBED IN HE UPPER PART OF SMALL INTESTINE (DUODENUM) • MUCOSAL CELL: COMBINES WITH APOFERRITIN  FERRITIN • MUCOSAL FERRITIN DELIVERS FERROUS IRON TO THE PORTAL • BLOOD CIRCULATION  FERRIC STATE  COMBINES WITH • Βglobulin  TRANSFERRIN • WHEN TOTAL QUANTITY OF IRON IN THE BODY IS MORE THAN • APOFERRITIN  HOMOSIDERIN

  22. IRON • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • ANEMIA • SKIN COLOR MAY BE REDDEN • DECREASE GROWTH RATE • SOURCES: • GREEN LEAVY MATERIALS • MOST LEGUMINOUS PLANTS AND SEED COATS • BONE MEAL, GLANDULAR MEAL, LIVER, AND MEAT MEAL

  23. ZINC • FORMS: • FOUND IN EVERY TISSUE IN THE ANIMAL BODY • TEND TO ACCUMULATE IN THE BONE RATHER THAN IN THE • LIVER AS MANY OTHER TRACE ELEMENT • MOST Zn IN BLOOD PRESENT IN THE ERYTHROCYTE • FUNCTIONS: • INTEGRAL PART OF THE ENZYME CARBONIC ANHYDRASE • COMPONENT OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE • COMPONENT OF SOME PEPTIDASE

  24. ZINC • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • RETARDED GROWTH • DISORDER OF THE BONES • SKIN DISEASES • DISORDER OF THE FEATHER AND HAIR COAT • REDUCED FEED EFFICIENCY • DELAYED SEXUAL MATURITY, STERILITY, FERTILITY • LOST APPETITE • PARAKERATOSIS • LEG ABNORMALITY IN POULT • SOURCES: • WHEAT MIDDLINGS • MOLASSES • FISH MEAL, YEAST

  25. COPPER • FUNCTIONS: • A CATALIST IN HAEMOGLOBIN FORMATION • COMPONENT OF SOME OXIDASE ENZYMES LIKE TYROSINASE, • ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE, URICASE • IN THE BLOOD DISTRIBUTED EQUALY BETWEEN PLASMA AND • ERYTHROCYTE • IN ERYTHROCYTE PRESENT IN THE FORM OF ERYTHROCUPREIN • IN PLASMA PRESENT IN THE FORM OF CERULOPLASMIN • IN BRAIN: CEREBROCUPREIN • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • SPONTANEOUS FRACTURE OF BONE • DEMYELINATION OF THE CNS • PIGMENTATION AND STRUCTURE OF HAIR AND WOOL: • ACHROMOTRICIA, ALOPECIA, DERMATITIS • FIBROSIS OF THE MYOCARDIUM • SCOURING • AORTIC RUPTURE • DECREASE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY

  26. COPPER • SOURCES: • LIVER AND GLANDULAR MEAL • CORN DISTILLERS • DRIED WHEY • PEANUT MEAL • COTTON SEED MEAL • FISH MEAL

  27. MANGANESE • FUNCTIONS: • ACTIVATE ENZYMES: ARGINASE, CYSTEIN DESULFHYDRASE, • THIAMINASE, and DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE • AMINO ACID METABOLISM: ACTIVATE ENZYMES, FORMS CHELATE • WITH AMINO ACID and PYRIDOXAL • ACTIVATOR IN THE SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS IN VITRO • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • REDUCE GROWTH • REDUCE MINERALIZATION • DEFECTIVE STRUCTUR OF THE BONES • CHICK: PEROSIS (SLIPPED TENDON) TIBIOMETARSAL JOINT • SYMPTOM S AGGRAVATED BY HIGH INTAKE OF Ca and P

  28. MANGANESE • SOURCES: • WHOLE RICE (420ppm) • RICEPOLISHED (18ppm) • CEREAL GRAIN (MODERATE AMOUNT), EXCEPT MAIZE (LOW) • MOST GREEN FEED CONTAIN ADEQUATE AMOUNT

  29. COBALT • FUNCTIONS: • COMPONENT OF VITAMIN B12 • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • ANEMIA PERNICICOLA • GRADUAL WASTING OF THE ANIMAL  STRAGGLY, • ROUGH WOOL IN SHEEP • REDUCED OXIGEN CARRYING CAPACITY • SOURCES: • USSUALY ALL ANIMAL AND PLANT ORIGINS ARE SUFFICIENT • IN GENERAL LEGUMES ARE RICHER SOURCES • CEREAL GRAINS ARE POOR IN COBALT

  30. MOLYBDENUM • FUNCTIONS: • COMPONENT OF XANTHINE OXIDASE AND LIVER ALDEHYDE OXIDASE • ANTAGONISM BETWEEN Mo AND Cu • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: • ADDITION OF Mo IN DEFICIENT Mo ANIMAL INCREASE LIVEWEIGHT GAIN • SOURCES: • CABBAGE 1.00 • LIVER & GLANDULAR MEAL 1.80 • SOYBEAN, WHOLE 2.50 • PEAS 1.40 • ALFALFA MEAL 0.35 • CEREAL TRACE or NIL