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Polyneoptera I. Lectures 4. Some major characteristics of Hexapoda : Maxillary plate present 3 body parts (head, thorax, abdomen) 3 thoracic segments each bearing a pair of legs Legs composed of 6 segments 11 maximum abdominal segments Trachea

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polyneoptera i

Polyneoptera I

Lectures 4

slide2

Some major characteristics of Hexapoda:

  • Maxillary plate present
  • 3 body parts (head, thorax, abdomen)
  • 3 thoracic segments each bearing a pair of legs
  • Legs composed of 6 segments
  • 11 maximum abdominal segments
  • Trachea
  • Some major characteristics of Insecta:
  • External mouthparts
  • Malpighian tubules
  • Annulated antennae
  • 2 pretarsal claws articulated with tarsus
  • Johnston’s organ
  • Ovipositor
  • Posterior tentorial arms fused
neoptera
Neoptera
  • “new wing”: wings capable of being folded back against their abdomen at rest, with wing articulations that derives from separate movable sclerites in the wing base.
polyneoptera
Polyneoptera
  • Group that includes 10 orders of insects (Plecoptera, Mantodea, Blattodea, Grylloblattodea, Mantophasmatodea, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Embioptera, Dermaptera, and Zoraptera)
  • Monophyly uncertain, but likely
  • Diverse morphology, biology, and ecology
major characteristics
Major characteristics
  • Fore and hind wings nearly equal in size
  • At rest, wings partly wrap abdomen and extend beyond abdominal apex
  • Abdomen soft with filamentous cerci
  • Immature aquatic
  • Abdominal gills
interesting biology
Interesting biology
  • Sexual attraction via acoustic signals
  • Males drum by tapping the tip of the abdomen on the substrate
  • Females respond and answer with a drumming

http://www.ias.unt.edu/~StoneflyHome/Home/

interesting biology1
Interesting biology
  • Surface skimming: a nonflying form of aerodynamic locomotion to move across water surfaces
  • Body weight supported by water
  • Effective aerodynamic locomotion with small wings and weak flight muscles
phylogeny of plecoptera based on morphology zwick 2000
Phylogeny of Plecoptera based on morphology (Zwick 2000)
  • 16 families, ~2000 species
  • Two suborder: Antarctoperlaria (southern) and Arctoperlaria (northern)
major characteristics1
Major characteristics
  • Common name: earwig
  • Elongate and flattened
  • Prognathous
  • Antennae short to moderate
  • Fore wings modified to leathery tegmina
  • Hind wings semi-circular
  • Cerci modified as forceps
  • Mostly omnivorous
interesting biology2
Interesting biology
  • Small to large
interesting biology3
Interesting biology
  • Ectoparasites
    • Suborder Hemimerina are ectoparasites of rats
    • Suborder Arixenina are ectoparasites of bats
    • Both viviparous

Arixeniina

Hemimerina

interesting biology4
Interesting biology
  • Maternal care
    • Egg care
    • Nymphal care
    • Defense
    • Providing food
diversity
Diversity
  • ~2000 species
  • Family-level classification unstable
  • Three extent suborders (Forficulina, Arixeniina and Hemimerina), but monophyly questionable

Jarvis et al. 2005 (Systematic Entomology)

common earwigs of florida
Common earwigs of Florida
  • Forficulidae
    • European earwig
    • Brownish black
    • 15-20 mm in length
    • Occasional damage to crops
common earwigs of florida1
Common earwigs of Florida
  • Anisolabididae

(used to be Carcinophoridae)

    • Seaside earwig
    • blackish brown
    • 20-25 mm in length
common earwigs of florida2
Common earwigs of Florida
  • Labiidae
    • 4-7 mm in length
    • Covered with golden hair
major characteristics2
Major characteristics
  • Common name: webspinners
  • Elongate, cylindrical
  • Prognathous
  • Wingless in all females
  • Basal fore tarsus swollen with silk gland
  • Cerci two-segmented
interesting biology5
Interesting biology
  • Silk production
  • All stages of development of both sexes
  • Basal tarsomere greatly swollen with numerous silk glands
  • http://youtu.be/k4ytfhnuuOo
diversity1
Diversity
  • 9 families, ~400 species
  • Monophyly of several families not supported
  • Over emphasis on male genitalia might be the problem

Szumik et al. 2008 (Cladistics)

major characteristics3
Major characteristics
  • Small, termite-like
  • Gregarious lifestyle, with individuals living in colonies up to about 120 individuals
  • Polymorphism in populations; with blind, apterous individuals dominating during colony life, but populations produce eyed alates (individuals with wings) for dispersal and founding new colonies
diversity2
Diversity
  • One family, Zorotyidae, ~30 species
  • Least known pterygote order
  • Phylogenetic placement uncertain

Yoshizawa and Johnson (2005), MPE

major characteristics4
Major characteristics
  • Common name: rock crawlers, icebugs
  • Found only at high elevations in the mountains of China, Siberia, Japan, and western United States and Canada
  • Wingless
  • Prognathous
  • Stout coxa adapted for running
diversity3
Diversity
  • One family, Grylloblattidae
  • ~20 described species, probably more to be described
major characteristics5
Major characteristics
  • Common name: heelwalkers
  • Newest order of insect discovered
  • Smallest order with 8 described species
  • Hypognathous
  • Long antennae
  • Wingless
  • Fore and mid legs raptorial
  • Endemic to South Africa