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IPED COAL POWER CONFERENCE. Coal Generation Technology Options. “Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice”. presented by. January 18-19, 2007 St. Petersburg, FL. Richard Gendreau, P.E. R. W. Beck, Inc. The Coal Paradox. On the One Hand: Abundant

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pay your money and take your choice


Coal Generation Technology Options

“Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice”

presented by

January 18-19, 2007 St. Petersburg, FL

Richard Gendreau, P.E.

R. W. Beck, Inc.

the coal paradox
The Coal Paradox
  • On the One Hand:
    • Abundant
      • >250 years of reserves in the U.S.
      • 95% of U.S. fossil fuel reserves
    • Relatively cheap
  • On the Other Hand:
    • Capital-intensive
    • Higher emissions than other fossil fuels
coal villain or savior
Coal: Villain or Savior?

It’s reality! Deal with it!

(1) EU15: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

co 2 abatement from coal
CO2 Abatement from Coal

Carbon Dioxide Reduction

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Track 2


- 95%

Increased Efficiency, Biomass Cofiring, etc. Track 1

- 60%


- 23%


Possible Now


Medium Term

Long Term



coal generation technology options
Coal Generation Technology Options
  • PC and CFB Technologies
    • Subcritical
    • Supercritical
    • Ultra-Supercritical
  • Oxyfuel Combustion
  • IGCC
comparing technology efficiencies
Comparing Technology Efficiencies
  • HHV or Higher Heating Value (U.S., Australia)
  • LHV or Lower Heating Value (Europe, Asia)
  • LHV Efficiencies are 5% to 10% Higher than HHV
  • Other Factors
    • 3% to 5% point difference between U.S. and Europe
subcritical coal fired power plants
Mostly Drum Type Boilers in U.S. and Once-Through Type Boilers in Europe

Lowest Capital and O&M Costs

Flexible Operation

High Availability

Net Plant Efficiency (HHV) 35% to 37% (9,800 to 9,200 Btu/kWh)

Subcritical Coal-Fired Power Plants
increasing cycle efficiency







Increasing Cycle Efficiency




Efficiency, %, HHV








SH Steam Temperature, °F

impact of efficiency on co 2 emissions
Impact of Efficiency on CO2 Emissions

Percent Reduction

CO2 Reduction

modern supercritical boilers
Modern Supercritical Boilers
  • High Efficiency (38% to 41%)
  • Lower Fuel Costs
  • Low Specific Emissions (lb/kWh)
  • Variable (sliding) Pressure Operation to Low Loads
  • Good Steam Temperature Control Over the Load Range
  • Rapid Load Change and Startup
  • FOF Similar to Subcritical (~4%)
ultra supercritical technology
Ultra-Supercritical Technology
  • No Clear Definition, 4350 psia, 1112 ºF/1112 ºF (300 bar, 600 ºC/600 ºC)
  • Possible Efficiencies up to 46 Percent and Higher
  • Ongoing Materials Research and Development
  • High Nickel Alloys Will Be Required and Will Significantly Increase Cost
cfb technology is mature
CFB Technology is Mature
  • Fully Commercial Technology
  • Over 500 Units Worldwide
  • Units in Service for Over 28 Years
  • 300 MWe Units in Service
  • 460 MWe Supercritical Unit in Construction
  • Single 600 MWe Unit With Full Commercial Guarantees Being Offered
  • Subcritical and Supercritical Cycles
  • Demonstrated High Availability
integrated gasification combined cycle

2C+ O2 → 2CO

2H2O → 2H2+ O2

H2+ S → H2S

Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle

2H2S+O2→ 2H2O + 2S

advantages of igcc compared to sc pc
Advantages of IGCC Compared to SC PC
  • Efficiencies Comparable to Current Supercritical PC Technologies
  • Somewhat Lower Air Emissions
  • Lower Water Consumption
  • Lower Solid Waste
  • Potential to Capture CO2 at Lower Cost
  • Potential for Polygeneration – Including Production of Fertilizer and Transportation Fuels
igcc power market challenges
IGCC Power Market Challenges
  • Unfamiliar Technology to Power Industry: “Chemical Plant,” not Combustion Boiler
  • Higher Capital and Operating Costs
  • Standard Designs and Guarantee Packages not yet Fully Developed
  • Reluctance to Assume Technology Risks
  • Lingering Availability/Reliability Concerns
  • Questions About Feasibility and Cost Using Low-rank Coals, Particularly PRB and Lignite
  • The 800-lb. Gorilla May Help to Change these Perceptions
efficiency of current coal technologies
Efficiency of Current Coal Technologies

CFB (1)

Subcritical PC (1)

IGCC (1)

Supercritical PC (1)

Future IGCC


1. Bituminous Coal

clean coal is not an oxymoron
“Clean Coal” Is Not an Oxymoron!

Dramatically Reduced Emissions!

Removal Efficiency

escalating power plant costs
Escalating Power Plant Costs
  • Recent 700 MWe Supercritical Coal Project - $1,800 to $2,000/ kWh
  • AEP Announced – They are Searching for Ways to Reduce the Costs of Two 600-MW IGCC Plants It Wants to Build in Ohio & West Virginia. AEP had Placed Tentative Price Tags of $1.2 Billion to $1.3 Billion Each on the Two Plants, but a Long-awaited Study Found Project Costs Greatly Exceeded Previous Estimates.
  • The 800-Pound Gorilla is Driving Greater Interest and Development in Supercritical and Ultra-supercritical PC, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Carbon Capture and Other Technologies
  • Supercritical Technology is a Well Proven, Low-risk Technology with Efficiencies Approaching 41 Percent (8,300 Btu/kWh) Today with Bituminous Coals
  • Developments in New Materials are Expected to Increase USC Cycle Efficiencies above 45 Percent (<7,500 Btu/kWh) in the Coming Years
  • Gasification and Related Processes Have Been Used Successfully for Decades in the Process and Petrochemical Industries
  • The COE from Currently Offered IGCC Technology is Generally Estimated to be 10% to 20% Higher than the COE from PC. This Difference is Greater with Low Ranked Coals, Such as, PRB and Lignite.
  • Broad Acceptance of IGCC Technology in the Power Industry Awaits the Completion and Operation of Currently Planned IGCC Projects.
  • Carbon Capture from Coal Gasification Derived Syngas is Commercially Mature
  • Oxyfuel and Other Technologies are Under Development to Reduce the Cost of Carbon Capture from PC and CFB Technologies
  • But at What Cost?!!!!!



Richard Gendreau, P.E.

R. W. Beck, Inc.

(508) 935-1810