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  1. Thinking About Learning Chapter 5

  2. What is Learning? • Behaviorism: an experience (conditioned stimulus) is paired with an emotional or physiological state (unconditioned stimulus) …over time, the individual responds to the conditioned stimulus with the same response as the unconditioned stimulus Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning…respond based on consequences of behavior…motivated to do things based on external outcomes (extrinsic rewards) • Modeling…learning by witnessing others’ behavior and consequences • Human nature is basically passive, external influences

  3. What is Learning? • Child Development…physical, mental, social functioning is qualitatively different in children than adults and move in age-related stages • Cognitive development…think and solve problems in predictable stages • By nature curious, open to experience, driven to discover and learn • Learning is the result of the action of the individual on the information or experiences presented by the environment

  4. Learning as Making Meaning • Constructivism…making connections between facts, understanding abstract concepts, reflecting on what is learned, ask questions, analyze, interpret, predict • Learning is the active making or constructing of meaning from experiences and observations • Errors are fodder for learning

  5. Social Interaction in Learning • Children influence each other to pay attention to certain phenomena and to reason in particular ways about that phenomena…and later to reflect on it • Learning is both interpsychological and intrapsychological in affective, cognitive, and behavioral • Progress dependent on social interaction during zone of proximal development • Constructivist teacher is mediator between the learner and the learning experience

  6. Differences in How Students Learn • Learning Styles…ways of processing information and the conditions we need to be able to pay attention • Physical environment, sociological setting, modes of perception, mental organization • Field independence and field dependence…perceiving the trees or the forest

  7. Gregorc’s MindStyles • Based on a combination of concrete or abstract perception and sequential or random conception • Concrete sequential…discrete facts, planners, conscientious • Abstract sequential…organized conceptually, big ideas, application and interrelationship • Concrete random…take things apart, risk-takers, happy with process, planning is difficult, unorganized • Abstract random…spontaneous ideas, new connections, few notes taken, creative dreamers

  8. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model • Four related types and processes: concrete experiencing, observing and reflecting, forming of abstract concepts and generalizations, experimenting with applying theories to practical action • Need all four…usually not strong in all four • Convergers and Divergers, Assimilators and Accomodators

  9. Learning Style Preferences (Dunn and Dunn) • Receive information: more easily visually, auditorially, kinesthetically • Adjust the physical environment • Emotional factors: motivation, responsibility, persistence • Self-oriented, peer oriented, adult oriented • Morning/night learn best, with food/drink

  10. Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) • Intelligence not a single trait • Eight intelligences, and possible ninth (existential) • Biological base, distinct manifestations in behavior • Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, intra-personal, inter-personal, naturalistic

  11. Culture and Learning • Ways of life different in different parts of the globe, groups of people have particular ways of perceiving, organizing, and responding to information • Teachers mostly white, Anglo, middle class…possible cultural incompatibility • Need for culturally responsive teachers