Energy Cultures Research Highlights 2011 OERC Symposium 24 Nov 2011
Growing!!! Dr Janet Stephenson sociology/human geography Prof. Rob Lawson psychology/marketing Dr Paul Thorsnes economics Prof. Barry Barton law (Waikato) Prof. Gerry Carrington physics / engineering PLUS Coordinator: Maria Ioannou 3 PhD students 4 Masters students 3 summer students Postdoc: Dr Becky Ford (aligned research) Reference Panel: Mercury Energy, EECA, DCC, energy consultant, CAB
Background to the project Huge difficulties in achieving energy efficiency uptake “It is difficult to explain low take up of energy efficiency as purely a rational response to investment under uncertainty” (Stern 2007) Many failed attempts to explain/predict from single discipline perspectives Energy Cultures – interdisciplinary / systems approach
House characteristics Insulation Energy sources Heating devices habit Number of rooms heated Social aspirations Expected comfort levels Heat settings Hours of heating Environmental concern Maintenance of technologies Respect for tradition
External influences HOUSEHOLD INCOME ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES BUILDING REGULATIONS CLEAN AIR REGULATIONS LAW & POLICY FOR EE DEMOGRAPHICS ENERGY PRICE STRUCTURE UPBRINGING SOCIAL MARKETING
Legal and policy analysis HOUSEHOLD INCOME ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES BUILDING REGULATIONS CLEAN AIR REGULATIONS LAW & POLICY FOR EE DEMOGRAPHICS ENERGY PRICE STRUCTURE UPBRINGING SOCIAL MARKETING
Involvement of whole team Problem definition Research design Values – “laddering” Choice modelling Research stages led by single disciplines Findings discussed by whole team Household surveys Legal & policy analysis Focus groups 2009-11 Social network analysis Involvement of whole team Analysis & integrate findings as a whole 2011-12 Involvement of whole team 2012 Design & test interventions
Household Surveys Two national on-line surveys in parallel • National sample of 2400 + 800 from case study areas • Household energy survey – detailed information on house structure, technologies, practices, beliefs, influences on change Loads of data, analysis ongoing • Choice modelling - preferences for space and hot water heating
Some results: Space Heating • Living area nearly always heated but rest of house much less often. • 40% can set temperature control in living room – usually 20-22° but ranges from 15 to 30° • Main heating types are electric heaters, heat pumps and woodburnersBUT 20% still use portable gas heaters
Some Results: Appliances: Have and use Have and don’t use Dehumidifiers 32% 11% Dishwashers 50% 7% Clothes driers 51% 13% Plasma TV 24% LCD/LED TV 49% Heated towel rails 29% 18% 75% washing machines are cold fill 70% claim energy efficient light bulbs as standard
Some results: Energy Behaviours • 12% changed heating method in previous 12 months • 16% changed some aspect of insulation in previous 12 months • 30% keep heating low to save money • 21% say they have gone without heating because they couldn’t pay a bill. • 9% need extra power for health reasons • We estimate 18% are in energy poverty (more than 10% of household income on energy)
Cluster 1 (21%) • Lower income (more < $20,000, few >$80,000) • Younger (many 20-30) • Many not in employment, students • Older houses, smaller houses • Many rent – private, HNZ, council • More portable electric heaters, gas heaters(?) • Few appliances - no dishwasher, separate freezer, clothes drier • Do many energy saving practices: Switch off at wall, Reduce heating unoccupied rooms, Switch off lights, Keep heating low, Line dry laundry, Shorter showers, Reduce water temp, Dishes by hand • Less likely to have energy efficient technologies, e.g.energy saving lights, energy efficient heating, double glazing • No ceiling, wall, underfloor insulation, don’t seal drafts • Believe energy choices aren’t complex; we should stop exploitation of resources • Lowest winter electricity bill
Cluster 2 (40%) • All incomes – but many $20-30000 • More aged 55 plus • Many retired • Tend to own debt free • Regions – Taranaki, Tasman, Hawkes Bay • Mixed practices: Have & use dehumidifiers, separate freezers, towel rails. Have & don’t use clothes driers, dishwashers • Have many energy efficient technologies: ceiling, wall, underfloor insulation, seal drafts • Heat pumps, central heating • Often talk to friends re energy • Pleasure less important • Support minimum standards on appliances + labelling
Cluster 3 (39%) • Over $70,000 pa • Age 20-50 • In full time work, including self employed • Own with a mortgage • Bigger houses, 4-5 bedrooms • Many heat systems coal, wood, gas, heat transfer systems, some not used • Instant electric and gas water heating • Lots of appliances: Dehumidifiers, clothes driers, plasma TVs, games consoles, laptops, Tubular TVs, video recorders, computers, spa pools • Do few energy saving practices: Rarely reduce heating in unoccupied rooms; Don’t keep heating low; Less likely to switch off lights; Less likely line dry laundry; Less likely shorter showers; Less likely dishes by hand • Think energy choices are complex • Protecting environment not important • Overall spend most on most forms of energy
Policy intervention conclusions • Cluster one – doing practices, material culture lacking – therefore target landlords including Housing NZ • Cluster 2 – already engaged – asking for customised information and performance standards • Cluster 3 - Not engaged and least concerned – regulation re housing, appliances or pricing??
Choice modelling findings • 1000Minds • Respondent-specific estimates of relative utility of various attributes of space heating and water heating systems • Then used cluster analysis to determine plausible groups (‘cultures’)
Cluster 1 – 16% water heating, 14% space heating Most concerned about upfront costs Policy implications for this cluster: • Subsidies necessary, but not sufficient for some • Low- or no-interest loans?
Cluster 2 – 17% space heating Willing to invest in more expensive heating but concerned about recovering costs on sale of house Policy implications for this cluster: • Home energy audits and home certification programme
Cluster 3 – 23% water heating, 21% space heating Most concerned about functional reliability of technologies Policy implications for this cluster: • Independent testing and certification needed
Cluster 4 – 35% water heating, 22% space heating Main concern is aesthetics (fit with house, impact on neighbours) Policy implications for this cluster: • Opportunities for designers & installers • Subsidies may need to be more flexible
Cluster 5 – 26% both groups Preference for some independence from the grid for space and water heating (e.g. solar hw, wetbacks, solid fuel fires etc) Policy implications for this cluster: • May respond well to subsidies or loans for solar hot water • Is there a wider appetite for off-grid; if so, does this extend to desire for feed-in to grid?
Many more findings Energy Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis of the New Zealand Legal Framework – Marcel Eusterfeldhaus & Barry Barton, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, Volume 29 Issue 4, pp.431-470, 2011. Minimum Energy Performance Standards: How does New Zealand compare with other countries? – Sanne van den Dungen, with revisions by Gerry Carrington, Sept. 2011. http://www.csafe.org.nz/research/Energy%20Cultures/MEPS_report_v14.pdf Personal Values and Energy Efficiency – Lawson, R., Mirosa, M., Gnoth, D & Hunter, A., Australia New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, New Zealand, Nov. 2010. http://anzmac2010.org/proceedings/pdf/anzmac10Final00306.pdf Linking personal values to energy-efficient behaviours – Rob Lawson, Miranda Mirosa, Daniel Gnoth. Under review with Environment and Behaviour. Characteristics of Household Energy Behaviours – Miranda Mirosa, Daniel Gnoth, Rob Lawson, Janet Stephenson. Report for EECA November 2010. Rationalising energy-related behaviour in the home: Insights from a value-laddering approach – Miranda Mirosa, Daniel Gnoth, Rob Lawson, Janet Stephenson. European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Summer Study, France, pp.2109-2119, June 2011. Household Preferences for Energy Efficient Space and Water Heating Systems – Paul Thorsnes, Rob Lawson, Janet Stephenson, Barry Barton, and Gerry Carrington, presented by Dr Paul Thorsnes, 34th International Association for Energy Economics Conference: Efficiency and Evolving Energy Technologies, Sweden, June 2011. http://www.hhs.se/IAEE-2011/Program/ConcurrentSessions/Pages/Wednesday,June22,0900-1030,Sessions51-62.aspx Energy Cultures: An Empircial Examination of New Zealand Households - to be presented to the 2011 Conference on Sustainable Consumption, Hamburg, November 6-8 Energy Cultures – A Framework for Understanding Energy Behaviours – Janet Stephenson, Barry Barton, Gerry Carrington, Daniel Gnoth, Rob Lawson & Paul Thorsnes, Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 10, pp.6120–6129, 2010. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510004611 Energy Cultures - a framework for interdisciplinary research – Janet Stephenson, Rob Lawson, Gerry Carrington, Barry Barton, Paul Thorsnes, Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress, Sweden, May 2011http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp_home/index.en.aspx?issue=057 The Practice of Interdisciplinarity – Janet Stephenson, Rob Lawson, Gerry Carrington, Barry Barton, Paul Thorsnes & Miranda Mirosa, The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, pp.271-282, 2010. http://iji.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.88/prod.1202 Energy Cultures research highlights October 2011
End of Year 2 • All investigative research stages completed ... although new avenues opening up! • Ongoing interest & engagement with key stakeholders • Significant international interest & desire to collaborate or emulate • Year 3 (project ends Sept 2012) • Papers & conference presentations ongoing • Intervention study with DCC, drawing from findings about change motivators Current state of play