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Motherboards and expansion cards
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  1. Motherboards and expansion cards Unit objective: Identify motherboard components and install expansion cards

  2. Topic A Topic A: Safety procedures Topic B: Motherboards Topic C: BIOS settings Topic D: Expansion cards

  3. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) Buildup of charges Static dangers Discharge voltages 3000+ volts to feel 8000+ volts to see spark 35,000 volts on a dry day on carpet 30 volts can damage electronics

  4. Preventing static buildup Don’t shuffle your feet Increase the humidity: 50-60% Keep yourself grounded Wear cotton, not synthetics Remove carpeting Use air ionization system

  5. Preventing static discharge • Equalize charge differences safely • Unplug the equipment • Touch the metal chassis or power supply • Keep yourself and equipment connected together • Wrist straps and antistatic mats • Static-safe bags • Goal is to be at a charge potential that’s equal with the device you’re servicing (not with ground) • Service on a properly grounded bench

  6. Antistatic (ESD) wrist straps

  7. Inside the case • Typical internal components • Opening the case • Front cover

  8. Office hazards: floor surfaces • Floors should be level and dry • Carpets should be secured to the floor • Cables and power cords should not cross walkways • Use antistatic mats to protect equipment from static electricity

  9. Office hazards: fire safety • Keep papers orderly • In metal file cabinet when possible • Keep combustibles away from coffee pots, hot plates, personal heaters • Keep working smoke detectors in all areas of building • Keep fire extinguishers readily available for each type of equipment you have

  10. Fire extinguisher classes • Extinguishers list appropriate uses • Newer ones use a picture • Older ones use color-coded shapes • Four classes • A: Ordinary combustibles • B: Flammable liquids • C: Electrical equipment • D: Flammable metals

  11. Fire extinguisher types • Dry chemicals • Halon • Water • CO2

  12. Office hazards: electrical safety • Don’t overload electrical circuits • Label breakers in electrical box • Use surge protectors and UPS • Don’t string together power strips • Don’t run electrical cords or network cables across walkways • Encase cords in a cord protector • Provide good ventilation for equipment • Secure cords out of the way • Can use cable ties, but don’t cinch tightly

  13. Office hazards: air quality • Use fans to keep air as clear as possible • Don’t smoke around computers • Clean computerfans periodically • Place working carbon monoxide detectors around building

  14. Physical hazards • Use care when lifting and moving heavy or bulky equipment • When lifting, take a balanced stance • Lift with leg muscles, not arms and back • Keep back straight • Grip with entire hand • Bring equipment close to your body • Keep the CRT screen towards body • Make sure you can see where you’re going • Restrain neckties, loose clothing, jewelry, and long hair continued

  15. Physical hazards, continued • Heat: • Laptop burns • Internal components

  16. Electrical hazards • Use care when working with any electrical equipment • Turn it off and unplug it, unless you don’t have an ESD strap • Inspect equipment wiring for defects • Don’t use damaged or frayed electrical cords • Remove metal jewelry, watches, and rings before working on equipment • Do not allow any liquid near equipment • Identify electrical ratings of equipment • DON’T OPEN CRT unless specially trained

  17. Laser printer and copier toner • Toner • Mixture of plastic resin, iron powder, and carbon black • Particles are 10 microns or smaller • Can irritate respiratory tract • Can cause allergic skin reaction • Use facemask and gloves • Clean up spills with special vacuum • Recycle cartridges • Replaceable ozone filters

  18. Incident reporting • Company should have written policy • Handling accidents • Reporting incidents • Proper documentation required for OSHA, workmen’s comp claims, and insurance

  19. Computer equipment disposal • Disposing of electronics • Hazardous materials • Disposing of used toner and ink cartridges • Disposing of computer equipment • Reusing equipment • Methods of disposal

  20. Topic B Topic A: Safety procedures Topic B: Motherboards Topic C: BIOS settings Topic D: Expansion cards

  21. A motherboard

  22. Motherboards • Components review CPU Expansion slots AGP graphics adapter slot Hard drive interface connectors Floppy drive interface connector Optical drive interface connector Power connector Memory slots PS/2 mouse and keyboard ports USB port IEEE 1394 / FireWire port Serial port Parallel port CMOS battery Network interface Video connectors Fan connectors Jumpers

  23. Daughter board • A circuit board • Connects to another circuit board to provide or assist with its functions • Most often used with video cards

  24. Form factor • Size and shape of a motherboard • Dictates power supply and case • Describes physical layout of components • Common form factors • ATX (9.6”x12”) • Mini-ATX (8.2”x11.2”) • Micro-ATX (9.6”x9.6”) • Mini-ITX (6.7”x6.7”) • Nano-ITX (4.7”x4.7”) • Pico-IXT (3.9”x2.8”)

  25. Computer bus Communication pathway Defined by How many bits it transmits at one time Signaling technique Data transfer speed Three types Address – Transmits memory addresses Data – Transfers data Expansion (I/O) – Expansion cards continued

  26. Computer bus, continued Address and data buses enable: Basic CPU operation Interactions with memory Expansion bus Communication pathway for non-core components to interact with the CPU, memory, and other core components Adapter cards add functionality

  27. Audio/Modem Riser Provides audio and modem support Moved analog input/output functions off the motherboard and onto an external card An AMR-compatible motherboard includes no other analog I/O functions Not subject to FCC certification testing

  28. Communications and Networking Riser An expansion of the AMR slot idea Supports specialized modems, audio cards, and network cards Normally located near edge of motherboard A motherboard has either an AMR slot or a CNR slot, not both

  29. PCI bus 32-bit or 64-bit bus 33 or 66 MHz clock speed 133-533 MBps maximum data transfer rate Up to 8 functions on a single card Up to 5 cards/slots per system Requires PnP

  30. PCI bus slots

  31. PCI adapter

  32. PCI-X standard Developed to address several shortcomings in the PCI standard Increases bandwidth for high-performance components, running at 133 MHz and transferring up to a theoretical maximum of 1.06 Gpbs PCI-X has been replaced in newer systems with the PCIe standard

  33. PCIe Newer standard Uses serial communication Lanes 2.5 Gbps in each direction using 8b/10b encoding (0.25 GBps) x1 (by one), x2, x4, x8, x12, x16, and x32 bus widths Links – bidirectional switched lanes Can up-plug (e.g., x1 card in x16 slot) Can’t down-plug (not officially)

  34. PCI Express slots and PCI • from top to bottom: ×4 , • ×16, • ×1 • ×16 • 32-bit PCI slot bottom

  35. Mini PCI Added to the PCI standard to create expansion devices for laptops 32-bit standard that runs at 33 MHz Wireless adapters, hard drive controllers, sound cards, and Bluetooth adapters OCZ Mini PCI-Express Solid State Drives are the affordable flash-based storage option to significantly increase the capacity for the latest generation of netbooks

  36. AGP bus standard Standards – 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 64-bit, Ultra, Pro, Ultra II Technically a port, not a bus Provides direct connection between video adapter and CPU Original performance benefit was accessing and using main system memory Direct Memory Execute (DIME) Modern AGP cards use onboard memory, except in laptops Multiple-monitor support Being phased out for PCIe

  37. AGP adapter Note the hook

  38. AGP characteristics Speeds referred to as #x Speed “pumped” to a multiple of standard speed AGP 3.0 8x slot transfers data 8 times per clock cycle 8 times faster than clock speed Maximum speed 2.13 GBps assuming a clock rate of 533 MHz for the PCI bus

  39. AGP slots Typically brown; sometimes maroon or other dark color Separated from other bus slots to help cooling High-end systems include multiple, independent AGP slots

  40. Multifunction cards PCI spec supports multifunction cards Up to 8 functions per card Five slots/cards per system Total of 40 expansion devices

  41. Chipsets • Memory control • System bus functions • Audio functions • Video display functions • System management functions

  42. Northbridge and Southbridge • Two most important components of a PC chipset • Northbridge controls interactions between the CPU, memory (including cache), AGP and PCIe video control circuitry, and the Southbridge • Southbridge controls interactions between buses and devices not controlled by the Northbridge

  43. Front panel connectors • Located on front of computer • Includes • USB • Audio • Power button • Power light • Drive activity lights • Reset button

  44. Topic C Topic A: Safety procedures Topic B: Motherboards Topic C: BIOS settings Topic D: Expansion cards

  45. BIOS • Basic Input/Output System • A set of software instructions stored on a chip on the motherboard • Enables basic computer functions

  46. CMOS • Area of memory that stores BIOS configuration information • Type of computer chip: complementary metal oxide semiconductor • Can maintain information when system’s power is removed

  47. BIOS configuration settings • Component information • Configurable settings • Monitoring • BIOS configuration procedure

  48. BIOS updates • BIOS implemented either in: • ROM: Programmed at factory (older technology) • Flash memory: Can update, “flash,” the BIOS • When to update • Update sources • Determining BIOS version • Researching BIOS updates • Flashing the BIOS

  49. Topic D Topic A: Safety procedures Topic B: Motherboards Topic C: BIOS settings Topic D: Expansion cards