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Seminar on CBSE (component-based software engineering): An industrial survey in Norway, Germany and ItalySimula Research Lab., Oslo, 4 Feb. 2005 ConradiDept. Computer and Information Science (IDI) NTNU, NO-7491, Tel +47 73.593444, Fax +47 73.594466

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

agenda for cbse seminar
Agenda for CBSE-seminar

1130-1200 LUNCH and REFRESHMENTS, buffet syle

1200-1215 Reidar Conradi, NTNU: general intro, why is CBSE important?1215-1230 Christian Bunse, Fraunhofer IESE: CBSE: a short overview.1230-1245 Maurizio Morisio, Politecnico di Torino: COTS and OSS: what is it?1245-1300 Preliminary discussion

1300-1400 Jingyue Li et al., NTNU: Main results from survey                   Section 1: COTS vs. OSS                   Section 2: Risk management in OTS based development                   Section 3: Process improvement for OTS based development1400-1430 Preliminary discussion1430-1435 Reidar Conradi, NTNU: lottery award ceremony for one respondent1435-1500 COFFEE BREAK

1500-1530 Additional and more qualitative comments from three companies:

             - Per Spilling, Objectware

               - Eivind Tagseth, Abeo (ex-ConsultIT)

                   - Rune Rysstad, WM-data1530-1545 Odd Petter Slyngstad, NTNU: Method issues in the survey

1545-1615 Final discussion

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

int l cbse survey 2003 2005
Int’l CBSE survey, 2003-2005
  • This is the promised seminar for the survey respondents!
  • What's in it for you:
    • learn how to practise CBSE more efficiently
    • identify the major risks and challenges in using CBSE
    • learn from other industrial projects
    • exchange CBSE experiences with industrial colleagues
  • Target audience:
    • software professionals and companies that have practiced or want to practice CBSE
    • researchers that want to learn about issues and results
    • journalists that want to convey main results back to the ICT community

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

motivation for cbse
Motivation for CBSE

Software reuse:

  • Any software artifact: rqmts, UML designs, Java code, …
  • Development ”FOR reuse”: making software parts for later reuse. Investing, need domain insight.
  • Development ”WITH reuse”(CBSE): composing a software system with pre-made parts. Harvesting.
  • Component = executable software part, open/closed source:
    • internal
    • external: COTS (commercial-Off-The-Shelf)
    • external: OSS (open source software)

100,000s of external ”OTS”-components, available on web.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

component based system application components glue addware
Component-based system:Application + components + glue/addware

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

reuse cbse key technology for
Reuse/CBSE – key technology for:
  • Shorter time-to-market (months)
  • Increased productivity / lower cost (pays off in 3rd project, in 1st with CBSE)
  • Better quality (well-tested components)
  • Promoting standards (domain, architecture, platform)
  • ...
  • But may have to adjust the software process

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

many cbse challenges
Many CBSE challenges:
  • OTS componentsused by 30% of Norwegian software projects, 75% are successful. Need guidance.
  • How to manage risks at different levels – project, requirements, architecture, components, ...?
  • Process changes: overall planning, increments, requirements management, ”acquire vs. develop”, customer contact, component decisions, …
  • How to evaluate, integrate and test components?
  • What is the impact on future maintenance?
  • How to manage external providers?

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

need empirical base for what works or not
Need empirical base for what works or not
  • Case studies / post-mortems:
    • Many reported, also in books [Karlsson95].
    • At Ericsson-Grimstad: reused components had less defects, more stablethan non-reused ones(Ex.1).
    • Top 10 COTS issues (Ex.2) [Basili01].
  • Controlled experiments:
    • Hard to apply here, due to lack of realism.
  • Surveys w/ questionnaires or interviews:
    • A few studies (Ex.3), including our own.
    • OSS survey in Italy [Bonaccorsi03].

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

ex 1 gprs umts system at ericsson grimstad
Ex.1 GPRS/UMTS system at Ericsson-Grimstad

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

ex 2 10 hypotheses on cots issues basili01
Ex.2 10 hypotheses on COTS issues [Basili01].

H1: More than 99% of all executing instructions come from COTS components.

H2: More than half the features in large COTS components go unused.

H3: Average COTS component has new release every 8-9 months.

H4: Dev. and post-deployment costs go by (#COTS comp.)**2.

H5: Post-deployment costs exceed development costs.

H6: Glue-code less than half dev. effort, costing 3x more per LOC.

H7: Non-development costs, e.g. licensing fees, are significant.

H8: Component assessment and tailoring efforts vary greatly by COTS product classes.

H9: Personnel capability and experience are dominant cost factors.

H10: COTS-based development is currently high-risk, although many have used it successfully.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

ex 3 cots usage contradicts common wisdom
Ex.3 COTS usage contradicts “common wisdom”

Structured interviews of 7 Norwegian and Italian SMEs:

Thesis T1: Open-source software is often used as closed source.

Thesis T2: Integration problems result primarily from lack of compliance with standards; not architectural mismatches.

Thesis T3: Custom code is mainly devoted to add functionalities.

Thesis T4: Formal selection seldom used; rather familiarity with product or generic architecture.

Thesis T5: Architecture more important than requirements to select components.

Thesis T6: Tendency to increase level of control over vendor whenever possible.

See [Torchiano04].

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

joint cbse survey in 3 countries
Joint CBSE survey in 3 countries
  • By NTNU/Simula Research Lab, Fraunhofer IESE, and Politecnico di Torino.
  • Pre-study of 16 projects in Norway in 2003.
  • Questionnaire in native language + English, using SESE web tool at Simula.
  • Asking 800-900 companies in 3 countries, aim for 150 reponses (40% of 30%?).
  • Have ca. 80 responses, 50 from Norway.
  • Main study: May 2004 - March 2005.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

main results
Main results
  • 30% of the IT companies had applied CBSE.
  • 3/4 of projects in these had success with CBSE.
  • Most projects searched the Internet for components, then tried out a few, before making a decision.
  • An incremental process is advisable to allow (re)negotiation of requirements.
  • Component quality is not always a major concern.
  • Local expert on the actual components is a big asset.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

other results
Other results
  • OSS components (open source) might be preferred, as they allow local changes.
  • COTS providers gave better technial support than OSS ones.
  • COTS components generally followed market trends.
  • Underestimation of integration and maintenance effort was a problem.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

  • First representative, int’l CBSE survey
  • Many interesting results, some surprising (web-based evaluation process)
  • Later supplement by qualitative interviews and real case studies, also look at WebServices
  • Re-do survey in UK and USA?
  • Surveys (as any other studies) are hard work!

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

literature list 1
Literature list (1)
  • [Basili01] Victor R. Basili and Barry Boehm, “COTS-Based Systems Top 10 List”, IEEE Computer, 34(5):91-93, May/June 2001.
  • [Boehm99] Barry W. Boehm and Chris Abts, “COTS integration: Plug and Pray?”, IEEE Computer, 32(1):135-138, Jan. 1999.
  • [Boehm03b] Donald J. Reifer, Victor R. Basili, Barry W. Boehm, and Betsy Clark, “Eight Lessons Learned in COTS-based Systems Maintenance”, IEEE Software, 20(5):94-96, Sept./Oct. 2003.
  • [Bonaccorsi03] Andrea Bonaccorsi and Cristina Rossi, "Why Open Source software may succeed”, Research Policy, 32(7):1243–1258, 2003.
  • [COCOTS00] Chris Abts, Barry W. Boehm, and Elizabeth Bailey Clark, “COCOTS: A COTS Software Integration Lifecycle Cost Model- Model Overview and Preliminary Data Collection Findings”. Technical report: USC-CSE-2000-501,
  • [Comella-Dorda02] Santiago Comella-Dorda, John C. Dean, Edwin Morris, and Patricia Oberndorf, “A Process for COTS Software Product Evaluation”, First Int’l Conference on COTS-Based Software Systems (ICCBSS’02), Orlando, FL, USA, February 4-6, 2002, Springer Verlag LNCS 2255, ISBN 3-540-43100-4, pp. 176-187.
  • [Heineman00] George T. Heineman, William T. Councill, Janet S. Flynt, Alok Mehta, John R. Speed, and Mary Shaw, “Component-based software engineering and the issue of trust”, 22nd Int’l Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’2000), Limerick, Ireland, IEEE-CS Press, 4-11 June 2000, pp. 661-664.
  • [Frakes95] William B. Frakes and Christopher J. Fox, “Sixteen Questions About Software Reuse”, CACM, 38(6):75-87, June 1995.
  • [Karlsson95] Even-André Karlsson (Ed.), "Software Reuse: A Holistic Approach" (The REBOOT Methodology Handbook), Wiley Series in Software Based Systems. John Wiley. 510 p., 1995. ISBN 0-471-95819-0.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005

literature list 2
Literature list (2)
  • [Li04] Jingyue Li, Finn Olav Bjørnson, Reidar Conradi, and Vigdis By Kampenes, "An Empirical Study of Variations in COTS-based Software Development Processes in Norwegian IT Industry", 10th IEEE International Metrics Symposium (Metrics'04), Sept. 14-16, 2004, Chicago, p. 72-83. Recommended for journal publication in Empirical Software Engineering. This contains results from the pre-study in Norway in 2003.
  • [Li05] Jingyue Li, Reidar Conradi, Odd Petter N. Slyngstad, Christian Bunse, Marco Torchiano, and Maurizio Morisio, "Preliminary Results of a State-of-the-Practice Survey on Motivations of Using Off-The-Shelf Components", Submitted to 6th International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES'2005), 13-16 June, 2005, Oulu, Finland, 17 p. This serves as the technical report of the main study in 2004, the OTS survey.
  • [Mohagheghi04] Parastoo Mohagheghi, Reidar Conradi, Ole M. Killi, and Henrik Schwarz, "An Empirical Study of Software Reuse vs. Defect Density and Stability", 26th Int’l Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE'2004), 23-28 May 2004, Edinburgh, Scotland, IEEE-CS Press, pp. 282-292 (given one of the five Distinguished Paper Awards at ICSE’04).
  • [Morisio00] Maurizio Morisio, Carolyn B. Seaman, Amy T. Parra, Victor R. Basili, Steve E. Kraft, and Steven E. Condon, “Investigating and Improving a COTS-Based Software Development Process”, 22nd Int’l Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’2000), Limerick, Ireland, IEEE-CS Press, 4-11 June 2000, pp. 31-40.
  • [Morisio02] Maurizio Morisio, Michel Ezran, and Colin Tully, “Success and Failure Factors in Software Reuse”, IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 28(4):340-357, April 2002.
  • [Ropponen00] Janne Ropponen and Kalle Lyytinen, “Components of Software Development Risk: How to Address”, IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 26(2):98-111, Feb. 2000.
  • [Szyperski03] Clemens A. Szyperski, “Component Technology - What, Where, and How?”, 25th Int’l Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’2003), Portland, Oregon, USA, IEEE-CS Press, 3-10 May 2003, pp. 684-693.
  • [Torchiano04] Marco Torchiano and Maurizio Morisio, "Overlooked Facts on COTS-based Development", IEEE Software, 21(2):88-93, March/April, 2004.

CBSE seminar, Simula Research Lab., 4 Feb. 2005