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GES 175: Science of Soils. Laboratory Week 1. Bedrock. Soil Development. Soil vs Regolith. Regolith = unconsolidated material above bedrock. Soil = weathered portion of regolith. bedrock. contains characteristic layers called horizons. Soil Profile. A. E. soil. B.

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Ges 175 science of soils l.jpg

GES 175: Science of Soils

Laboratory

Week 1


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Bedrock

Soil Development

Soil vs Regolith

Regolith

= unconsolidated material above bedrock

  • Soil

    • = weathered portion

    • of regolith

bedrock


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  • Soil Profile

A

E

soil

B

development

Bedrock

C

Bedrock



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Soil Profile

Argixerol

Soil Horizons


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Soil Profile

Soil Horizons

A

Bw

E

BE

Btb

Argixerol

C


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O horizon-Organic

A horizon-Mineral & Organic

E horizon-Eluviation (Loss)

B horizon-Illuviation (Gain)

C horizon- little Alteration from Parent Material

R horizon- Bedrock

Master Horizons


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Master Horizons

Ohorizons:Layers dominated by organic material. Some are saturated with water for long periods or were once saturated but are now artificially drained; others have never been saturated.


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Master Horizons

Ahorizons:Mineral horizons that formed at the surface or below an O horizon, that exhibit obliteration of all or much of the original rock structure

-an accumulation of humified organic matter

intimately mixed with the mineral fraction and not

dominated by properties characteristic of E or B horizons

-properties resulting from cultivation, pasturing,

or similar kinds of disturbance.


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Master Horizons

E horizons:Mineral horizons in which the main feature is loss (eluviation) of silicate clay, organic matter, iron, aluminum, or some combination of these, leaving a concentration of sand and silt particles.


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MasterHorizons

Bhorizons:Horizons that formed below an A, E, or O horizon and are dominated by obliteration of all or much of the original rock structure

(1) (illuvial) concentration of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, humus, carbonates, gypsum, or silica

(2)coatings of sesquioxides that make the horizon lower in value, higher in chroma, or redder in hue than overlying and underlying horizons

(3)alteration that forms granular, blocky, or prismatic structure


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Master Horizons

Chorizons or layers:Horizons or layers, excluding hard bedrock, that are little affected by pedogenic processes and lack properties of O, A, E, or B horizons. Most are mineral layers.

Rhorizons or layers: Hard Bedrock


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12 Soil Orders

I AM A SUAVE HOG

or

I GAVE US OMAHA

Compliments of Prof. M.J. LaForce


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I AM A SUAVE HOG

Inceptisol- Soils with weakly developed subsurface

horizons

Alfisol- Soils with a subsurface zone of silicate clay accumulation and >35% base saturation

Mollisol- Grassland soils with high base status

Andisol- Soils formed in volcanic ash

Spodosol-Acid soils with a subsurface accumulation of metal-humus complexes

Ultisol- Subsurface zone of silicate clay accumulation and

<35% base saturation


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I AM A SUAVE HOG

Aridosol- Soils in Arid environments with moderate to strong development

Vertisol- Clayey soils with high shrink/swell capacity

Entisol- Soils with little or no morphological development

Histosol- Organic soils

Oxisol- Intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments

Gelisol- Soils with permafrost within 2 m of the surface


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Twelve Soil Orders

Entisol (recent)

Inceptisol (L.-inceptum, begging)

Mollisol (L.-mollis, soft)

Alfisol (pedalfter)

Ultisol (L.-ultimus, last)

Oxisol (Fr.-oxide)

Increasing Soil Depth

Maturation (loss of Si)


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Twelve Soil Orders

Aridisol (L.-aridus, dry)

Spodosol (Gr.-spodos, wood ashes

Gelisol (Gr.-gelid, very cold)

Vertisol (L.-verto, turn)

Andisol (L.-aridus, dry)

Histosol (Gr.-histos, tissue)

Climate Specific

Material Specific


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Rock

Ideal Weathering Series

Entisol

Inceptisol

Aridisol (dry climate)

Mollisol

Vertisol (clay mineralogy)

Alfisol

Spodosol

(cool and wet)

Ultisol

Oxisol


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Entisol

-(ent)

  • Shallow to bedrock.

  • Limited use and management.

  • The most common uses are rangeland


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Inceptisol- (ept)

  • Steep slopes and cool climate slow soil development.

  • Inceptisols are widely distributed and occur under a wide range of environmental settings.


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Mollisol

-(oll)

  • Soil formation under native grassland vegetation


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Alfisol

(-alf)

  • Alfisols are mostly found in temperate humid and subhumid regions of the world.

  • Developmentally just past Mollisols


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Histosol

-(ist)

  • Organic matter is highly decomposed and has few remaining plant fibers.


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Vertisol

-(ert)

  • Abundant, ‘active’ clay particles are dominant


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Aridosol

-(id)

  • Form in dry climates

  • White crust at the soil surface is a mixture of various soluble salts (definitely not snow!).


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Gelisol

-(el)

  • Permafrost persists below 38 cm year-around.

  • The lack of significant microbial activity in these soils leads to an accumulation of organic matter.



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Web Sites of Interest permafrost

NRCS

http://www.statlab.iastate.edu/soils/photogal/orders/soiord.htm

Universities

http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/index.htm

http://soils1.cses.vt.edu/MJE/CSES3124/Laboratories.html

Keys to Soil Taxonomy

http://www.statlab.iastate.edu/soils/keytax/


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