Types of water ? • Rain water • Storm water • River water/ Lake water • Ocean water • Domestic water • Industrial water • Drinking water • Agricultural water • Irrigation water • Sewage etc.
Water hyacinth in lakes and rivers due to pollution -chokes fish landing sites, e.t.c.
Setting the WQ standards • Water quality criterion (water quality guideline) – Needed to support and maintain a designated water use. who sets the guidelines in Kenya? • Water Quality Objective ( water quality goal)- Needed to support and to protect the designated uses of water at a specific site. • Water quality standard – An objective that is recognised in enforceable environmental control laws or regulations of a government.
Water quality objectives • Water quality objectives are the measures that specify the concentrations of substances permissible for all intended water uses at a specific location on a lake, river, or estuary. • The objectives are based on the water quality guidelines for the uses at that location, as well as on public input and socio-economic considerations. • The objectives not only protect water users and the environment, but they also promote sustainable water management strategies.
Cont.. • Water Quality Objectives are intended to provide guidance in making water quality management decisions such as the designation of the surface waters which should not be further degraded. • They are often used as the starting point in deriving waste effluent requirements included in Certificates of Approval and other instruments issued to regulate effluent discharges. • They are used to assess ambient water quality conditions, assist in assessing spills and monitoring the effectiveness of remedial actions.
Advantages of Water Quality Objectives • Focuses on solving problems caused by conflicts between the various demands placed on water resources, particularly related to assimilated pollution. • Enables an overall limit on levels of contaminants within a water body to be set according to the required uses of the water. • It treats industry equitably requiring the use of best available technology for treating hazardous, as well as a number of conventional water pollutants whenever the industry is located.
Primary drinking water standards criteria • Microorganisms -Giardia lamblia; Virus; Legionella;Turbidity • Disinfection Byproducts- bromate, chlorite, trihomethanes; haloacetic acids • Disinfectants- chloramines, chlorine and chlorine dioxides • Inorganic Chemicals – Arsenic, barium, fluoride, copper, lead, • Organic Chemicals – Benzine; Carbontetrachloride; Dichloromethane • Radionuclides – Uranium;Alpha particles; Beta particles and photon emitters
Irrigation water quality – salinity and sodium hazards • the total concentration of soluble salts (TDS or EC) • the relative proportion of sodium to the other cations, • the bicarbonate concentration as related to the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and • the concentrations of specific elements and compounds. • Sodium adsorption ratio is given • SAR = [sodium]/[calcium][magnesium]
Others standards • Domestic Wastewater effluent standards- pH, mercury, cyanide, turbidity, DO level • Industrial water standards – Varies with type of goods being manufactured • Industrial waster water effluent – Heavy metals • Bathing water – swimming pools etc • Nb: Standards can be national (WRMA), regional (EAC) or international (WHO, EPA)
Recall the causes of water pollution • Sewage and organic waste. • Chemical pollutants and other toxic materials from industrial processes. • Fertilizers and other nutrients that cause eutrophication (a process where water bodies such as lakes become concentrated with nutrients leading to growth of algae and other organisms). • Bacteria and other microbiological agents. • Silts and other solids that do not easily dissolve in water and which obstruct water flow. • Pesticides and other agricultural processes.
1. Identify the sources of water pollution (http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterquality.html)
Choosing Water resources – Starting point of WQ interventions • Water Quality - How good is it? • Affordability - What does it cost? • Adequacy – Can it supply enough water? • Reliability - How long will it last? • Convenience - How far away is it from homesteads?
2. Embrace IWRMas the best management tool 1992 Dublin principles • Fresh water is finite and vulnerable resource • Water resource planning, development and management should involve all stakeholders • Women play a central role in water affairs • Water has an economic value and should be viewed as an economic good
IWRM concept application in Kenya • WRMA recognises the stakeholder participation as key in restoring the catchment- Catchment Management Strategy • MWI has developed the national IWRM plan • The plan has taken aspects of sustainability into consideration • IWRM level of implementation is still very low in Kenya
IWRM benefits • Progress in pollution control and achievements in the programme can only be quantitatively recognised through water quality monitoring • WRMA has adopted the principles of IWRM in pollution control, several benefits can be realised.
IWRM benefits cont; • protecting catchment areas, pollution control and environmental flows. • lead to the water security of the world’s poor and the unserved being assured • be a stimulus to the sector to push for recycling, reuse and waste reduction • will improve the opportunity for introduction of sustainable sanitation solutions
3. Holistic Catchment management • Area • Length • Slope • Forests • Farms • Industries • Dwelling houses • Rivers • Lakes • Reservoirs • Wildlife • Soil types • Geology • Climate Y P (mm) Rainfall station Gauging station Divide X Q(m3/s) Z
4. ECOSAN: Use of new technology WATER QUALITY
ECOSAN and the linkage to IWRM INTEGRATED APPROACH (MULTISECTOR)
ECOSAN and the linkage to IWRM INTEGRATED APPROACH (MULTISECTOR)
5. Inter/intra sectoral coordination • WRMA • NEMA • KEBS • Ministries • International agencies • Private sector
6. Improvement on; 1. Strong Information Baseline Poor pollution monitoring by effluent dischargers 2. Create high Compliance to Regulations mechanisms Low priority by industry on wastewater treatment Ignorance on existing regulations Historically weak enforcement 3. Develop adequate Infrastructure Inadequate capacity of treatment plants Frequent sewerage bursts / sewer spills Poor management of dumping sites Poor disposal of wastes especially in informal settlements Storm water drainage Expansion of Juakali Industry
WRMA initiatives on Effluent Dischargers • To develop an Effluent Discharge Control Plan (EDCP). • To have a valid effluent discharge permit before discharging into the water resources. • To maintain records of effluent discharge in terms of quantity and quality. • To install a controlling and measuring device to ensure water abstracted or effluent discharged is accurately measured • WRMA monitors resource & enforces compliance to WRM Rules
Carry out Pollution assessment & Monitoring • Extent of industrial, domestic, agricultural etc wastes • How many permits issued and are standards adhered to • Are there legislation to prevent littering • What are the distribution of land use in the catchments • What is the population growth rate • What is the attitude of local people towards pollution • Are there water borne diseases • Are there changes in animal and plant communities with time.. • Are polluters punished
Strengthen the Guiding Principles for Water Pollution Control • Prevent pollution rather than treating symptoms of pollution • Use the precautionary principle • Apply the Polluter Pays Principle • Apply realistic standards and regulations • Balance economic and regulatory instruments • Apply water pollution control at the lowest appropriate level • Establish mechanisms for cross -sectoral integration
Guiding Principles cont; • Encourage participatory approaches with involvement of all relevant stakeholders • Give open access to information on water pollution • Promote international cooperation on water pollution control
Reasons for treatment • Remove smells and odors, • Dissolved gases (Ammonia, hydrogen sulphide) • Kill germs, pathogens, bacteria and viruses • Water hardness • Portable and safe water
Where do we start? • Water samples – from sources (borehole) • Water examination • Water analysis – Water laboratory • Re-samplying every three months • Checking on transmission lines for infiltration of sewage water
Methods for purification • Simplest is boiling • Filtration • Chlorination • Ozone • UV treatment • Water guard (Sodium hypo chlorite) • Distillation
Filters • Sand filters for large communities • Gravity filters for small communities • Domestic household filters • Filter cartridges ( for many types of ions) • Activated carbon or charcoal filters • Fluoride filters – CDN as a leader • Reverse osmosis – More advanced
The working principles of some specific filters • Ozone filters – Through oxidation process, all organic, inorganic and biological substances are destroyed • Steam distillation – Natural methods which is able to remove Biological Entities, Heavy Metals, Organic Chemicals, Inorganic Chemicals & Radioactive Material • Carbon filters (Charcoal) – A good media for a wide range of contaminant like chlorine, pesticides, herbicides and inorganic materials • Far Infrared Light (FIR) - Very suitable for toxin removal • Ultraviolet Light – Very cheap to use – Deactivates the DNA of bacteria, virus and other pathogens
Working principles Cont; 6. The ceramic water filters – Very cheap and affordable- removes dirt, microbes, virus and bacteria 7. CDN Fluoride filters- Single and combined “These two filters are cheap and wananchi friendly”