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RAL Masterclasses 2009. INTRODUCTION A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators. Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/pust/masterclass.htm. Microscopes & Telescopes ~ 400 Years Ago. Galileo’s telescope, ~1609, Florence Magnification ~30.

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slide1

RAL Masterclasses 2009

INTRODUCTION

A Very Brief Guide

to Accelerators

Glenn Patrick

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/pust/masterclass.htm

microscopes telescopes 400 years ago
Microscopes & Telescopes ~ 400 Years Ago

Galileo’s telescope, ~1609, Florence

Magnification ~30

Compound microscope

~1670, Glasgow

Magnification ~30

Siderius Nuncius,

Galileo Galilei, 1610

Micrographia

Robert Hooke, 1665

small scales and large scales today
Small Scales and Large Scales - Today

Large Hadron Collider (2009)

Hubble Ultra Deep

Field (2004)

slide4

Particle Physics

Astronomy

E = mc2

E  kT

probing matter
Probing Matter

Higher energies means shorter wavelengths.

cosmic particles
Cosmic Particles

Interactions in the atmosphere

Low flux of particles

Difficult to identify/control

Accelerators!

charged particle beams
Charged Particle Beams

e+

e-

Force on charged particle is given by the Lorentz Force

Electric Field

Acceleration

Magnetic Field

Bending

Anode(+)

Cathode(-)

p+

e-

slide8

1897 – J.J. Thomson

John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier

Cavendish Laboratory, 1932.

slide9

Cockroft/Walton

Pre-Injectors

750kV FermiLab

665 kV ISIS, RAL

(replaced 2004)

fermilab 400 mev
Fermilab (400 MeV)

+

+

-

-

-

LINEAR ACCELERATORS

+

+

Alternating RF voltage. Each step gives a small energy increase to the particle.

slide11

2 mile Linear Accelerator, SLAC, Stanford

World’s straightest building

World’s longest building

circular accelerators
Circular Accelerators

13 cm

Cyclotron

First circular particle accelerator built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in 1930.

Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm

principal components of a synchrotron
Principal Components of a Synchrotron

In a Collider, bunches of particles/antiparticles

circulate in opposite directions.

slide14

Super Proton Synchrotron

CERN, Geneva

(6km circumference)

radio frequency cavities
Radio Frequency Cavities

LEP (CERN)

Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP)

1989-2000

27 km circumference

3,000 bending magnets

800 focussing magnets

11,000 revolutions/sec

slide16

Electromagnetic waves accelerate particles in the same way that waves propel surfers.

Timing is vital!

focussing magnets
Focussing Magnets

Quadrupole (LEP)

Strong Focussing

Beam alternately

focussed in horiz

and vert planes.

Sextupole (LEP)

Correction of chromatic spread.

hera electron proton collider 6 3 km
HERA – Electron Proton Collider (6.3 km)

Hamburg, 1992-2007

920 GeV protons

27.5 GeV electrons/positrons

e

p

ɣ

proton

slide19

Tevatron, FermiLab, Chicago

Tevatron

Main injector

Collides protons and anti-protons

Energy = 1 TeV (1000 GeV)

4 mile circumference

synchrotron radiation
Synchrotron Radiation

e

You are here

Diamond Light Source

Started operation Feb 2007. Uses synchrotron radiation for studies at molecular/atomic level.

international linear collider
International Linear Collider

~31 km

The Next Generation?

250 GeV electrons colliding with 250 GeV positrons

8 February 2007 Reference Design Report

2010 – 2012 Technical Design Phase

? Construction/Operation

masterclass programme
Masterclass Programme

09:30 Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R18)

10:00 Welcome Caroline Callard

10:05 A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators Dr. Glenn Patrick

10:20 Fundamentals of Particle Physics Dr. Stefania Ricciardi

11:00 Introducing DiamondDr. David Price

11:15 Introducing ISISDr. Martyn Bull

11:35 Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond

Group B: Computer Session Drs. Tricoli & Wielers

12:30 Buffet Lunch (R18)

13:30 The Large Hadron ColliderDr. Kristian Harder

14:15 Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond

Group A: Computer Session Drs. Tricoli & Wielers

15:15 Tea

15:30 Applications of Particle Accelerators Dr. Rob Edgecock

16:00 Question and Answer Session

16:15+ End

Material can be found at: http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/pust/masterclass.htm

energy units
Energy Units!

Electron Volt – Energy gained by an electron when accelerated in an electric field through a potential difference of 1 volt.

1 eV = 1 electron Volt

Energy to ionise hydrogen = 13.6 eV

1 keV(kilo) = 1,000 eV = 103 eV

Medical X-ray ~ 200 keV

1 MeV(Mega) = 1,000,000 eV = 106 eV

Alpha particle decay of uranium 4.2 MeV

1 GeV(Giga) = 1,000,000,000 eV = 109 eV

LEP collider beam (1989-200) = 45 GeV

1 TeV(Tera) = 1,000,000,000,000 eV = 1012 eV

Highest energy accelerator in world = 1 TeV (Tevatron)

Highest energies

found in cosmic rays (>1020 eV)