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Complex Lipids. 13.4-13.8. What are complex lipids. Help to create the main components of membranes AKA compound lipids Complex lipids can be classified into 2 groups Phospholipids Gylcolipids. What are Phospholipids??. Contain: At least 1 fatty acid Phosphate group

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what are complex lipids
What are complex lipids
  • Help to create the main components of membranes
  • AKA compound lipids
  • Complex lipids can be classified into 2 groups
    • Phospholipids
    • Gylcolipids
what are phospholipids
What are Phospholipids??
  • Contain:
    • At least 1 fatty acid
    • Phosphate group
    • And sometimes a nitrogen containing a phosphate ester
  • 2 types
    • Glycerophopholipids
    • Sphingolipids
  • Most are made in the liver and then put into the bloodstream
glycerophospholipids
Glycerophospholipids
  • Glycerophospholipids are also called phosphoglycerides
  • Structure is very similar to fats
  • Membrane components of cells throughout the body
  • The alcohol is glycerol
  • Fatty acid on carbon 2 of glycerol is always unsaturated
lecithin
Lecithin
  • Lecithin- common name for phosphatidylcholines
  • Typical lecithin molecules have stearic acid on one end and linoleic acid in the middle
  • Major component of egg yolk
  • Has polar and nonpolar portions in each molecule
  • Excellent emulsifier = used in mayonnaise
sphingolipids
Sphingolipids
  • Different type of complex lipid
  • Fatty acid + sphingosine = ceramide portion of the molecule
  • Ceramide part of complex lipids may contain different fatty acids
  • Sphingomyelins- most important lipids in myelin sheaths of nerve cell
    • Associated with diseases like multiple sclerosis
  • Not randomly distributed in membranes
glycolipids
Glycolipids
  • Complex lipids that contain carbohydrates and ceramides
  • One group- Cerebrosides
    • Made of ceramide mono- or oligosaccharides
    • Fatty acid of the ceramide may contain either 18 or 24 carbon chains
    • Mainly occur in the brain & nerve synapses
  • Other groups- Gangliosides
    • Contain more complex carbohydrate structure
slide9

Contain mono- or oligosaccharides

    • Mostly in the brain
    • Make up about 70% of the brain dry weight
what are membranes
What are membranes?
  • Made up of lipid bilayer
  • Lipid bilayer- 2-layered structure of complex lipids set tail-tail
  • Hydrophobic- tails point towards each other
  • Hydrophilic- tails point towards away from each other
    • Which makes them closer to the water
slide11

Most lipid molecules in the bilayer contain at least

one unsaturated fatty acid

  • Unsaturated fatty acids prevent tight packing of hydrophobic chains in lipid bilayer
  • Liquid like characteristics because the unsaturated fatty acids prevent tight packing in the lipid bilayer
slide12

Important component is Cholesterol

  • Similar structure to other membranes
con t
Con’t
  • Lipid part of membrane serves as a barrier against movement of ions
  • The fluid mosaic model of membranes allows non-polar compounds to pass by diffusion
  • Polar compounds are transported by channels through protein regions
con t1
Con’t
  • Contains a negatively charged phosphate groups and positively charged nitrogen
  • Charged parts provide a strong hydrophilic head
  • Rest of the molecule of hydrophobic
what do lipids do for membranes
What do lipids do for membranes??
  • Complex lipids form membranes around organelles
    • Small structures inside the cells
  • Provide selective transportation for nutrients and wastes in and out of cells
  • Important component- unsaturated fatty acids especially in lipid bilayer
  • Separate cells from external structure