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Chapter 1: Language in Our Lives (1-21). Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105) Shannon Phillips. Our Focus: Early Childhood Years. Otto: Birth through primary school (age eight) Hennings: Birth through fifth grade (eleven or twelve)

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chapter 1 language in our lives 1 21

Chapter 1: Language in Our Lives (1-21)

Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105)

Shannon Phillips

our focus early childhood years
Our Focus: Early Childhood Years
  • Otto: Birth through primary school (age eight)
  • Hennings: Birth through fifth grade (eleven or twelve)

Why is it important to know all levels…even if you will only teach at one level of school?

to be a good communicator
To Be a Good Communicator

“Oral language and written language acquisition are interrelated processes that culminate in children’s communicative competencies” (Otto, 2002, p. 2).

“…[T]eachers [should] recognize that children need a wide range of communication competencies to ensure their effectiveness in a variety of settings throughout their lives” (Otto, 2002, p. 3).

aspects domains of language knowledge





sounds and symbols

concepts become meaning

grammar and syntax

changing word structure

intent and context of communication

Aspects/Domains of Language Knowledge
what is a phoneme ipa charts
What is a phoneme? (IPA Charts)

A single, distinct, linguistic sound (not letter)

What are issues English-language learners might have regarding phonemes, letters, and diacritical markings?
  • They may not be able to pronounce all of our sounds.
  • The /th/ sound in French does not exist, but the letters do.
  • How do French speakers pronounce /th/?

Understanding “sound properties” also leads to an understanding of “psychological or emotional properties,” which are know as what? (Otto, 2002, p. 6)

Prosodic features

what are schema and schemata
What are schema and schemata?
  • Schema: “interrelationships between concepts”—the connections (Otto, 2002, p. 6)
  • Schemata/Semantic networks: functions in our brains (“cognitive structures”) that “organize,” categorize, or group “new” or “recall” information together (Otto, 2002, p. 6)
  • Think of two examples not listed in the text. What are they?
explain this
Explain this…
  • What does “[v]ocabulary development is closely related to general linguistic competence and to reading comprehension” mean?
  • How is this semantic in nature?
  • How does this relate to listening skills?

(Otto, 2002, p. 6)

how does semantic knowledge relate to syntactic knowledge
How does Semantic Knowledge relate to Syntactic Knowledge?
  • Semantics help them acquire the recall and understanding of relationships to understand grammar.
  • Grammar and syntactic knowledge define sentence structure.
why is grammar important to language development
Why is grammar important to language development?

You know the answers . . .


People will not understand what you are communicating (Otto, 2002, p. 8), and what is the point of communicating if you cannot be understood?

how do you say this
How do you say this?


  • How does this relate to semantic and syntactic knowledge?
  • What is the importance of knowing how to say this number?
who has taken a foreign language give me an of syntax and grammar rules
Who has taken a foreign language?Give me an of syntax and grammar rules.






otto s unconscious level comment
Otto’s unconscious level comment

“Knowledge of the importance of word orderis known linguistically at an unconscious levelbefore children can verbalize their understanding of that language concept” (2002, p. 7).

Why? How?

the child does not have knowledge or words for it but modeling and imitation help
The child does not have knowledge or words for it, but modeling and imitation help.
  • Conceptual/semantic knowledge = comparison or connection to other self-spoken and listening examples.
  • Imitation, repeating, and listening are crucial, hence solidifying the concepts from Hennings that thinking, reading, and writingmust occur hand-in-hand in the classroom or the child will not develop as fully.

Justification for the integrated language arts classroom

morphemic knowledge

Morphemic Knowledge

Not sentence structure but word form

what is a morpheme
What is a Morpheme?
  • Smallest units in a language that still have meaning
  • Cannot be broken into smaller units and still hold the original meaning
  • Examples: Prefix or Suffix, Preposition, and Conjunction
what are the types of morphemes
Free: word


Attaches to the free morpheme

Creates further meaning

What are the types of morphemes?



what are the types of morphemes26




Verb tense



What are the types of morphemes?



how does the form and meaning change webster com
How does the form and meaning change?



Singular to Plural

Verb ... Doing





id the morpheme types and meanings
ID the Morpheme Types and Meanings




Past Tense

Progressive Verb







When a young child overgeneralizes, what could that tell you about his morphemic knowledge?

why is this important
Why is this important?

Language is

  • built (or builded...?)
  • learned

not memorized

what morpheme is this derivational or inflectional




Comparative adjective

Superlative adjective

What morpheme is this?Derivational or Inflectional



pragmatic knowledge

Pragmatic Knowledge

intent and context and social registers

  • Social
  • Etiquette
  • Taking turns
  • Conversational rules
  • Connected to discovery and storytelling
levels of language knowledge
Levels of Language Knowledge
  • Linguistic Knowledge
    • Knowledge of how to use language to communicate
  • Metalinguistic Knowledge
    • Conscious awareness of specific features of language
  • Verbalization of Metalinguistic Knowledge
    • Can verbally respond to questions about specific language features
  • How is listening, a skill many teachers rely upon, improved?
critical role of oral language competencies
Critical Role of Oral Language Competencies

Children who are fluent in oral language are more successful learners

  • They can communicate their ideas more effectively
  • They can ask questions during learning activities
  • Their oral language knowledge provides a basis for learning about written language
  • They are able to listen effectively
  • They are able to converse with peers and with teachers effectively