21 st centuries literacy and reading instruction
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21 st Centuries Literacy and Reading Instruction. Session 3 Fluency. Physical Cultural Social. Emotional Cognitive. Modeled. Shared. Vocabulary & Concept Development. Strategies. Guided. Collaborative. Classroom Environment. Word Recognition. Strategies.

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reading model for the wake county public school system

Emotional Cognitive




& ConceptDevelopment




Classroom Environment

Word Recognition


Foundational Literacy







Reading Model for the Wake County Public School System


fluency is important because
Fluency is important because…

it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension!

fluency develops gradually as students learn to
Fluency develops gradually as students learn to….

combine sounds and letters to make words

acquire words that can be read automatically

learn to break up text into meaningful chunks in order to read with expression (phrasing)

recognize that the rate of reading changes depending on the type of text and how familiar the topic and words are to the student

fluency is more than automatic word recognition

Fluency is more than automatic word recognition.

Children also need to be able to read with prosody and expression.

essential components
Essential Components

Accuracy and Automaticity of decoding processes

  • Readers decode words accurately.
  • Readers decode words effortlessly.
  • Teachers use accuracy rate as a way to determine the student’s independent, instructional, and frustration levels.
essential components1

Essential Components

Reading Speed or Rate

Readers read with an age or grade level appropriate rate.

Reading speed is adjusted for purpose and text difficulty.

essential components2

Essential Components

Expression and Prosody

Readers read with smoothness, phrasing, and inflection.


Readers comprehend important ideas in connected text.


Teach students to recite the alphabet as a conversation, using punctuation to cue inflection and/or reciting the same sentence using different punctuation and/or placing stress on different words in the same sentence.

Blevins 2001



Dogs bark?

Dogs bark!

Dogs bark.

I am tired.

I am tired.

I am tired.

Readers become fluent from…

exposure to rich and varied models of fluent reading.

explicit feedback, guidance, and instruction.

processing appropriately challenging and varied text.

oral reading practice on a regular basis.

what should students read

What Should Students Read?

Short passages


Humorous texts

Narrative and expository text

Patterned or predictable text

Familiar text

Define explicitly the “Characteristics” of fluent reading for students.

Fluent readers…

  • read what is on the page.
  • vary the speed.
  • make oral reading interesting.
  • retell what they have read.
model and demonstrate through read alouds

Model and demonstrate through read-alouds.

Accurate Reading ----Inaccurate Reading

Appropriate Speed---Inappropriate Speeds

Smoothness -------- Hesitating, Halting

Expressive ------- Monotone

Appropriate Phrasing ----- Word-by-word

guided practice

Guided Practice

Select an appropriately challenging and engaging piece of reading.

Start with…

Choral reading- echo reading, unison, popcorn, mumble, line-a-child



giggle poetry

Giggle Poetry

“I Call First”

“Get Out of Bed!”

“Rules for the Bus”



assessing fluency

Assessing Fluency

It is important to take time to collect data about our students’ fluency, and to use that data to drive instruction.

K-2 – Running Records

3-5 – Dibels, Running Records

reading is like learning to ride a bike if you go too slowly you fall off
Reading is like learning to ride a bike: if you go too slowly, you fall off.

Susan Hall and Louisa Moats, Straight Talk About Reading