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Intelligent Interfaces Enabling Blind Users to Build Accessibility into the Web. A PhD Dissertation by Jeffrrey Bigham. Introduction. About the Author Remote Study of Blind Users’ Browsing Behavior AccessMonkey Audio Captcha Interface TrailBlazer WebAnywhere Conclusion.

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intelligent interfaces enabling blind users to build accessibility into the web

Intelligent Interfaces Enabling Blind Users to Build Accessibility into the Web

A PhD Dissertation by JeffrreyBigham

introduction
Introduction
  • About the Author
  • Remote Study of Blind Users’ Browsing Behavior
  • AccessMonkey
  • Audio Captcha Interface
  • TrailBlazer
  • WebAnywhere
  • Conclusion
about the author jeffrey bigham
About the Author: Jeffrey Bigham
  • 2004-2009: CS PhD Student at UW
    • Advisor: Richard Ladner
  • 2009-2012: Assistant Professor at Rochester
  • Current: Carnegie Mellon
  • 35 under 35 MIT Innovator’s Award
rmote web study
Rmoteweb study
  • Blind user group vs sighted user group
    • Comparative study with 10 ppl in each group
  • Remote due to difficulty of getting users into lab
  • Javascript plugin to monitor click events
results of remote web study
Results of remote web study
  • ~70% blind users to click on descriptive links vs 30% of sighted users
  • 20 times more dynamic content changes for sighted users
  • 20 times more interactions on average with dynamic content for sighted users
  • 3 times more probes per page on average for blind users
  • Only 6% blind users used skip links
criticisms
Criticisms
  • Study contained about half computer science and engineering people
    • But people with visual disabilities are underrepresented in computer science and engineering
    • Not as likely to find work arounds for flash
  • Only 6% blind users used skip links
    • Bigham hypothesis that screenreaers can jump around
    • More likely answer: skip links many times do not work, are very laggy, and can make the browser crash or freeze
accessmonkey
AccessMonkey
  • Transcodes webpages making them more accessible
    • FireFox plugin
    • Stand alone webpage
    • Web proxy
how it works
How It Works
  • Adding alt text to images
    • Hand written by users
    • Grab text around image automatically
  • Intelligent links
  • Replace all graphics with links to the graphic
  • Add access keys to various links
results
Results
  • IBM Japan and Google have created script repositories for AccessMonkey
criticisms1
Criticisms
  • Only in javascript
  • Users must know how to write javascript
  • No studies done with blind users
audio captcha an improved interface
Audio Captcha: An Improved Interface
  • Audio captcha
    • Alternative to visual captcha for people who are blind
    • More difficult than visual captcha
  • Interfaces are terrible
    • Screenreaders talking while audio going at same time
    • Audio starts before able to type
how it works1
How It Works
  • Play/Pause/R/F inside edit box
    • Ready to type when audio starts playing
    • Use . For play/pause
    • Use / fast forwward
    • Use , rewind
results1
Results
  • 59% more likely for blind users to complete audio captcha on first try
  • No improvement in time to complete on successful attempt
    • Audio inherently takes longer than visual
criticisms2
Criticisms
  • Not able to transcode new interface into all websites
  • Partly irrelevant as firefox plugin can bypass captcha
  • Interface not intuitive
trailblazer
TrailBlazer
  • Knowledge base
    • How to perform common tasks on various websites
    • Similar KBs have been created for sighted users
how it works2
How it works
  • Directs focus to particular parts of the website
    • Each focused part is a step in the task, e.g. make airline reservations
  • Natural language interface: make reservations
  • If no KB entry for that site, then can try to use script from another similar site
results2
Results
  • Tasks performed on 15 most popular sites
  • 41% correct suggestion on first try
  • 70% correct suggestion in top 5 results
  • 5% correct on first try for human guessing
criticisms3
Criticisms
  • No studies done with blind users
  • Small amount of how to scripts
webanywhere
WebAnywhere
  • A screen reader built into a website
    • Can be accessed from any computer with sound and javascript
    • Does not need to be installed
  • Just go to website and start surfing the web with TTS
how it works3
How It Works
  • Reads left to right, top to bottom
  • Can skip between links, headers, tables, paragraphs, and other HTML elements
  • Review what was typed
  • Hit enter to follow links
  • Full functionality of a traditional screen reader
results3
Results
  • Most people found it tedious to use
  • But only slightly more tedious than a normal screen reader
  • Most said they would use the system in the future
criticisms4
Criticisms
  • Difficult to change rate of speech
    • Internet delay limits speech rate
  • Only English version at time
  • Can only be used to read the web
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Web Accessibility
    • A difficult but important problem
  • Bigham offers four innovative solutions
    • WebAnywhere most successful and longest lasting
    • Audio captcha interface not used
    • AccessMonkey and TrailBlazer not well known but good apps