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Kingdom Fungi!. Fungi (Fun-guy). M ore than 100 000 described species Estimated 1.5 million fungi species Some of the most important organisms Both beneficial and harmful to humans Nonphotosynthetic, absorb nutrients for other organisms.

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Kingdom Fungi!


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    1. Kingdom Fungi!

    2. Fungi (Fun-guy) • More than 100 000 described species • Estimated 1.5 million fungi species • Some of the most important organisms • Both beneficial and harmful to humans • Nonphotosynthetic, absorb nutrients for other organisms Royse, Daniel J.. "Fungi." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2003. Retrieved March 02, 2013 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403400278.html

    3. Cell Structure • Fungi have Eukaryotic cells • Most fungi’s are multicellular • The cell wall is composed of chitin • The cells have no chloroplast (no photosynthesis) Dulson, J., Fraser, D., LeDrew, B., Vavitsas, A. (2011). Biology 11. Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd.

    4. Common Characteristics • All fungi are heterotrophic • Most fungi are terrestrial • Reproduce both sexually and asexually • All reproduce through mitosis Dulson, J., Fraser, D., LeDrew, B., Vavitsas, A. (2011). Biology 11. Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd.

    5. Reproducing Asexually Reproducing Sexually • Requires two parents causing genetic variation • Increased survival, better adapting to environment • Offspring arise from single parent • Offspring is identical to parent • Reproduces very quickly Gregory, M. What is Life?. Retrieved March 2nd 2013, from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Life/life.htm#Sexual%20Reproduction

    6. How They Get Their Nutrients • Fungi get nutrients through absorption • Absorption is unique to fungi in Eukaryotes • Fungi don’t have to find food • Must live in their food • Nutrients are transported through cell wall • Digest food before they eat Wong, G. (2011). Fungal Diversity (Continued). Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/Lect03_b.htm

    7. Honey Fungus (Armillariamellea)(Arm-ill-air-ee-ah mah-lay-ah)

    8. Taxon Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Physalacriaceae Genus: Armillaria Species: Mellea (Armillariamellea) Kuo, M (2005, February)

    9. A Brief Introduction • The Honey mushroom is a medium sized mushroom, 1-4 inches in diameter. • They can range from brown to yellow in colour. • They are found on wooden surfaces, and can be found mainly in the united states’ forested areas, with few exceptions in southern Canada (Quebec mainly). • They grow late in the summer around august. (Tom Volk, 1997)

    10. Some Fun Facts on this Fungi • The Honey Mushroom is bioluminescent and causes the phenomena known as “foxfire” (a glow in a wooded area at night). • This species is parasitic, it eats away at any tree it can grow on. • One patch of Honey Fungus covers 2,400 acres in Oregon (mainly underground), and is approximately 2,200 years old. Hotson, H.H (1940)

    11. How Do They Work? • The Honey Mushroom is parasitic. • It grows on its source of food. • It sends out rhizomorphs, which are black, branch-like tendrils that leech nutrients from its host tree(s) RogersMushrooms (2000)

    12. Is it Dangerous? The Honey mushroom itself is not dangerous, but it has a few look-alikes that can be quite deadly (such as the Galerinamarginata). This is why proper species identification is so important. (2008-2013) Mushroom Appreciation

    13. Uses • Eating! • They have a very sweet and somewhat bitter taste. • They are often parboiled (half cooked in boiling water) to remove stomach irritants, then cooked and served with soups, pastas, and stuffing. (2008 - 2013 Mushroom Appreciation )

    14. References • Hotson, H.H. (1940). The Genus Armillaria in Western Washington. Mycologia 32(6): 776-790 • Kuo, M. (2005, February). The genus Armillaria: Honey mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/armillaria.html • Rogers Mushrooms (2000, August) Web site: http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~5569.asp • Volk, T. (2003, March). http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/ • 2008 - 2013 Mushroom Appreciation http://www.mushroom-appreciation.com -Luc Thistle-

    15. Fungi KingdomYeast Adrian Pelleboer March/2013 Biology 3U

    16. Brewers Yeast (Saccharomyces. Cerevisiae) http://www.altmd.com/Articles/Brewerx0027s-Yeast--Encyclopedia-of-Alternative-Me

    17. Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Fungi Phylum:Ascomycota Class:Sordariomycetes Order: Hypocreales Family:Clavicipitaceae Genus: Claviceps Species:Claviceps purpurea Taxonomy

    18. http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2011/9/14/1316029994927/Brewers-yeast-007.jpghttp://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2011/9/14/1316029994927/Brewers-yeast-007.jpg Introduction • It is a single celled organism • Used to make beer • Rich source of minerals; chromium,protein,selenium, and B-complex vitamins • Can be grown to make nutritional supplements • Easily confused, but should be confused with baker's yeast, nutritional yeast, or torula yeast • It grow past 40µm in size

    19. Fun Facts • Scientist found the exact strain of brewers yeastin a bakery in the ruins of Ancient Egypt that dated back 5,000 years • Available forms in flakes, pills, grown, dried, liquid forms fresh, powder, and many other options as well • In 1978 brewers yeast was the first eukaryotic organism to have its DNA transformed • It can also be used for animals as well such as dogs and cats http://honestcooking.com/2012/07/10/bakers-yeast-demystified/ http://www.best-dog-treat-recipes.com/brewers-yeast.html

    20. How it is works for fermenting alcohol 8 Common Steps • Malting: when barely grain is made ready for brewing. • Mashing: Mixes grains together and converts starch released during malting stage into sugar that can be fermented. • Lautering: is the separation of liquid sugar extracted during mashing from the grains. • Boiling: is where chemical and technical reactions take place. • Fermenting: is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol.  • Conditioning: is when the beer is aged/matured • Filtering: the beer stabilizes the flavour, and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. • Packaging: putting the beer into containers to leave the factory. Hot Water Tank Malt Mash Turn Hops Copper Hopback Heat Exchanger Bottling Add yeast to fermenter Cask or Keg

    21. http://avandia-sideeffects.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/sideggects.jpghttp://avandia-sideeffects.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/sideggects.jpg Advantages Side effects • Prevent colds and flu's • Can make beer, wines, and ciders from it • Prevents shedding on many animals • High in vitamins; protein and vitamin B’s • Help improve ache • Causes lower blood presser • It can cause head aches • Stomach discomfort • Diarrhea • Gas and/or bloating • Many people are allergic to it • Causes lower blood presser http://crowdfundingbank.com/advantages-of-crowdfunding/

    22. Vitamins/Minerals in Brewer’s Yeast http://www.jamiesonvitamins.com/files/5746-EN.gif • B vitamins -usually come in pill form • Protein -Powders, Pills and drinks • Chromium(mineral) -Solid form, found of periodic table -help bodies blood sugar levels • Selenium(mineral) -Solid form, found on periodic table http://takingthehelmofyourownevolution.blogspot.ca/2012/04/why-ill-never-use-whey-protein-powder.html http://www.vitaminshoppe.com/store/en/browse/sku_detail.jsp?id=TL-1241#.US7BnaIslS8 http://www.thejourney.me/tag/protein/ http://periodictable.com/Elements/024/index.html http://periodictable.com/Elements/034/index.html

    23. University of Maryland Medical Center .(2011)http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/brewers-yeast-000288.htm Demand Media, Inc. (2013)http://www.livestrong.com/article/338956-the-difference-between-brewers-yeast-baking-yeast/Timokhi.I (2009)http://periodictable.com/Elements/034/index.htmlVandenLangenberg.B (2012) http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2012/vandenla_beth/facts.htm Miedema.K (2011)http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/miedema_kait/classification.htmWikipedia. (2013) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brewing#Boiling Bibliography

    24. Blusher Amanita rubescens By: tyler foran

    25. Description The blusher, scientifically known as Amanita rubescensis a common mushroom that is spread across Europe and eastern North America (M. Kuo 2012). it has a brownish-yellowish cap spreading from 5-20cm in diameter with a white bottom and a white stem. The stem can grow anywhere from 7-15 cm in length and 1-2 cm in width. (G. Kibby 2003)

    26. Uses Besides the Fact that the Blusher is edible while cooked it has no significant uses due to its size and high level of toxicity while raw. (M. kuo 2012)

    27. Taxonomy Kingdom: Fungi Division:Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Amanitaceae Genus: Amanita Species: A. rubescens

    28. Facts • The blusher contains a hemolytic toxin in its raw state (M. Kuo 2003) • The blusher mushrooms in some cases would grow together and form a ring which brought arise to some folk legends in countries a couple being England and Scotland (G. Micalhargy 2011) • This species was named and described by ChristiaanHendrikPersoon in 1797.

    29. Bibliography • by Michael Kuo, MushroomExpert.Com, March 2003. http://www.mushroomexpert.com/amanita_rubescens.html • by Geoffrey Kibby, www.first-nature.com, 2012 http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/amanita-rubescens.php • eol.org,2012 http://eol.org/pages/2865532/details

    30. Polyporus squamosus(paul-e-poor-us, squa-mo-sis) John Dawson (photographer). Overlapping clusters of Dryad’s saddle, Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Polyporus%20squamosus.htm

    31. Basic Information • Species name - Polyporus squamosus • Common names – Dryad’s saddle, Pheasant’s-back polypore • Kingdom: fungi • Phylum: Basidiomycota • Class: Agaricomycetes • Order: Polyporales • Family: Polyporaceae • Genus: Polyporus Emberger, G. (2008). Polyporus squamosus. Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Polyporus%20squamosus.htm

    32. When and Where it Grows • Grows most often April and May • April through November • Lower portion of dead tree trunks • Most commonly seen on elm trees • Wide spread across Eastern North America • Circles around initial mushroom Volk, T. (2001). Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month for May 2001. Retrieved March 3rd, 2013, from: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/may2001.html

    33. Nutrient Intake • Releases chemicals to digest • Breaks down to soluble molecules • Dissolves nutrients through cell wall • Saprophyte (sap-row-fight) • Nutrients from dead organic matter Carter, J. (1997). Fungi. Retrieved March 3rd 2013, from: http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/fungi.htm

    34. Characteristics of Polyporus squamosus • Has a white, cream colour scheme • Smells like watermelon rinds • Edible, good if correctly prepared • Approximately 5-30cm wide x 1-4cm thick • Spores are white, 10-16mm x 4-6mm Kuo, M. (2004, November). Polyporus squamosus. Retrieved March 3rd, 2013, from: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/polyporus_squamosus.html

    35. Reproduction • Polyporus squamosus reproduces sexual and asexual • Most often asexual • Multiply very quickly in bunches • Sexual can occur, takes longer Gregory, M. What is Life?. Retrieved March 2nd 2013, from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Life/life.htm#Sexual%20Reproduction

    36. Jared’s References • Royse, Daniel J.. "Fungi." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2003. Retrieved March 02, 2013 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403400278.html • Dulson, J., Fraser, D., LeDrew, B., Vavitsas, A. (2011). Biology 11. Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd. • Gregory, M. What is Life?. Retrieved March 2nd 2013, from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Life/life.htm#Sexual%20Reproduction • Wong, G. (2011). Fungal Diversity (Continued). Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/Lect03_b.htm • John Dawson (photographer). Overlapping clusters of Dryad’s saddle, Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Polyporus%20squamosus.htm • Emberger, G. (2008). Polyporus squamosus. Retrieved March 2nd, 2013, from: http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Polyporus%20squamosus.htm • Volk, T. (2001). Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month for May 2001. Retrieved March 3rd, 2013, from: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/may2001.html • Carter, J. (1997). Fungi. Retrieved March 3rd 2013, from: http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/fungi.htm • Kuo, M. (2004, November). Polyporus squamosus. Retrieved March 3rd, 2013, from: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/polyporus_squamosus.html • Gregory, M. What is Life?. Retrieved March 2nd 2013, from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Life/life.htm#Sexual%20Reproduction