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1960s. By: James, Paul, and Helen. World Events. Amazing Facts of the 60’s. * Population 177,830,000 * Unemployment 3,852,000 * National Debt 286.3 Billion * Average Salary $4,743 * Teacher's Salary $5,174 * Minimum Wage $1.00 * Life Expectancy: Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years

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1960s

By: James, Paul, and Helen



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Amazing Facts of the 60’s

*Population 177,830,000

* Unemployment 3,852,000

* National Debt 286.3 Billion

* Average Salary $4,743

* Teacher's Salary $5,174

* Minimum Wage $1.00

* Life Expectancy: Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years

* Auto deaths 21.3 per 100,000

* An estimated 850,000 "war baby" freshmen enter college; emergency

living quarters are set up in dorm lounges, hotels and trailer camps.


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Important Historic and Cultural Events

  • U.S. Postal rates go up to five cents for the first ounce.

  • AT&T introduces touch-tone telephones.

  • There are 2.5 million federal employees in 1963, twice the number there were in 1940. Not surprisingly, there are now 50 million people paying income taxes; there were only 4 million in 1940. See the connection?

  • "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan marks the beginning of the feminist movemen

  • Dr. Michael DeBakey uses an artificial heart to take over the functions of the heart during surgery.

  • During a visit to West Berlin in June, President Kennedy warms his audience with the words, "Ich bin ein Berliner."

  • June: Pope John XXIII dies; he is succeeded by Pope Paul VI.

  • The Supreme Court rules that reading verses from the Bible in public schools is unconstitutional.

  • The Yankees are in the World Series once again; but this year they lose to the Dodgers in four straight.

  • The USS Thresher, a nuclear powered submarine, sinks off the coast of Cape Cod, killing all 129 onboard.

  • President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas; two days later, his accused killer, Lee Harvey Oswald, is shot and killed by Jack Ruby.

  • New York renames its Idlewild airport in memory of the assassinated president.

  • The Academy award for Best Picture goes to "Tom Jones."


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1960

  • February 13 – France detonates its first Atomic device becoming the fourth nation with atomic power.


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1960(cont.)

  • March 30 – Sharpeville Massacre in South Africa – 50 killed during Apartheid protest

  • April 21 – Super-modern looking Brasilia becomes the capital of Brazil

  • May 23 – Adolph Eichmann captured in Argentina by Israeli agents. Later he is convicted and then hung on May 31, 1962.


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1960 (cont.)

  • July 21 – Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman premier of a modern parliamentary nation – Ceylon.

  • September 9 – Representatives of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela vote to establish the Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC),


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1961

  • March – Soviet Union places a spacecraft carrying a dog in orbit around the Earth

  • April 12 – Soviet Union puts first man in space. His name was Yuri Gagarin

  • April 25 – Bay of Pigs landing in Cuba fails. Helps to solidify Castro’s power.


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1961

  • August 31 – Berlin Wall constructed to keep East German citizens inside their own city.

  • December 22 – James Davis became the first US soldier killed in Vietnam


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1962

  • March 7 – The British Royal College of Physicians concludes that cigarette smoking is a cause of lung cancer.

  • July 3 – After years of bitter fighting France ends 132 years of colonial rule over Algeria.

  • October 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis


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1962cont.

  • October 11, 1962 – Pope John XXIII convenes Vatican II, which will address church adaptations to changing conditions.

  • 1962 – The Earth’s population is 3.1 billion – roughly one half of what it is in 2000


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1963

  • June 19 – Soviets put first woman into space – Lt. Valentina Tereshkova

  • June 30 – Paul VI becomes pope

  • September 19 – A British-French report favors the building of a channel tunnel between the two countries.


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1964

  • October 16 – China explodes its first atom bomb

  • October 17 – Brezhnev becomes the First Secretary of the Soviet Union’s Communist Party, replacing Khrushchev

Ooh la la!``````````````````````````````````````````


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1965

  • May 13 – President Johnson has 14,000 troops in the Dominican Republic to prevent a communist take over

  • July 20 – British House of Lords approves a ban on the death penalty for murder.

  • September 28 – India and Pakistan begin a minor war over Kashmir.

  • December 30 – Ferdinand Marcos inaugurated the Philippine president.


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1966

  • January 19 – Indira Gandhi selected as Prime Minister of India

  • May – Chairman Mao launches the Cultural Revolution


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1967

  • March 10 – The first confirmed octuplets are born in Mexico City.

  • June 15 – Start of the Six-Day War between Israel and several Arab neighbors.


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1967(cont.)

  • December 3 – South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first hear transplant operation. The patient lives 18 days.


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1968

  • Februrary 4 – France is awarded extensive oil drilling rights in Iraq

  • May – violent protests erupt throughout France as students all over the country protest the government of Charles deGaulle. deGaulle will call for new elections; the Gaullists win in a landslide.


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1968(cont.)

  • July 1 – sixty-one nations, including the United States and Soviet Union, sign a nuclear nonproliferation treaty.

    July – Direct commercial airline traffic begins between the United States and the Soviet Union


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1969

  • January – The Ninth Chinese Communist Party Congress ends the Cultural Revolution.

  • January 10 – Sweden becomes the first Western government to recognize the government of North Vietnam.


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1969(cont.)

  • January 24 – General Francisco Franco imposes martial law in Spain in response to student disturbances

  • February 3 – The Palestine Liberation Organization elects Yasser Arafat as chairman.


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1969(cont.)

  • February 15 – English doctors complete the first in vitro fertilization of human egg cells

  • March 2-15 Soviet and Chinese forces clash on the Manchurian border, a disputed frontier.

  • April 28 – French president Charles deGaulle resigns following rejection of his constitutional plans


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1969(cont.)

  • June 5-17 - Delegates from 75 countries attend the World Communist Conference in Moscow

  • September 1 – Colonel Moamer al Khaddhafi leads a coup and military takes over Libya.


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1969(cont.)

  • October 1 – The French-British supersonic airliner Concorde makes its first supersonic flight

  • November 11 – The United Nations General Assembly rejects the admission of communist China for the 20th time.


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Vietnam War1961-1969


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Gulf of Tonkin

  • August 2,1964

    The U.S. destroyer Maddox is attacked off North Vietnam, in the Tonkin Gulf, by North Vietnamese torpedo boats. On August 4 the Maddox and the destroyer C Turner Joy are attacked.

    The Tonkin Gulf incident moves the United States Congress to authorize President Lyndon Johnson to undertake “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.”


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  • February 8 1965

    U.S. aircraft bomb North Vietnam following Vietcong attacks on U.S. areas in South Vietnam. This begins a pattern of regular U.S. bombing of North Vietnam known as Operation Rolling Thunder or Operation Flaming Dart.


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  • March 8, 1965 –

    Two battalions of U.S. Marines, 3,500 soldiers, land to defend Danang airbase in South Vietnam. These are the first combat troops to enter the war.

    July 1965 –

    President Johnson announces that he will increase the number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000. He also doubles the monthly draft quota from 17,000 to 35,000.


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October 1965 –

Opponents of the war in Vietnam organize protests across the United States. Some burn draft cards; one is arrested for doing so, under a new federal law.

March 1966 –

Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announces that 215,000 U.S. troops are now in South Vietnam. Some 20,000 more are scheduled to join them.


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  • March 8, 1966 –

    Australia triples its forces supporting the South Vietnamese to 4,500

  • September 23, 1966 –

    The United States announces that it has been using defoliating agents in territory around the demilitarized zone between North and South Vietnam to deprive North Vietnamese infiltrators of protective cover.


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  • January 1968

    Former Truman advisor Clark Clifford succeeds McNamara as secretary of defense. McNamara had alienated President Johnson by questioning the administration’s escalation of the Vietnam War.


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  • January 30-February 29

    The Vietcong launches the Tet offensive against South Vietnamese. They atttacked more than 100 cities and towns in a series of coordinated attacks throughout South Vietnam. The Vietcong failed to capture any towns or cities and were ultimately driven back from most of the positions they had gained.

  • North Vietnam lost up to 85,000 men.

  • The Americans lost about 2,500 men.


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  • March 1968-

    President Johnson appears on national television to discuss the war. He also announced that “I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president.”


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  • March 16, 1968 –

    U.S. soldiers massacre 450 men, women, and children at the village of My Lai, in South Vietnam. The news of this event will surface almost two years later. The soldiers insist that they were following orders.


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  • May 10 –

    United States and North Vietnamese negotiators begin peace talks in Paris, France.

  • July 3 –

    General William C. Westmoreland relinquishes command of U.S. forces in Vietnam, after losing President Johnson’s confidence. Westmoreland is succeeded by General Creighton W. Abrams.


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  • April 1969 –

    United States B-52s drop an estimated 3,000 tons of bombs, a new record, on Vietcong positions near the Cambodian border in South Vietnam.

  • August 1969-

    President Nixon announces the withdraw of 25,000 U.S. troops from South Vietnam

  • September 1969 –

    35,000 more troops withdrawn.



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The Fabulous Fads of The 60’s

  • Go-Go Boots: A Foot-First Jump into the Wacky World of Mod Footwear

  • As skirtlines rose in the 60's, so did the height of footwear.

  • Fashion was meant to accentuate the leg during the 60's,

  • and boots were the arrow that pointed the way. The shorter

  • the skirt, the taller and tighter the boot!

  • For most of the 20th century boots had been worn only in

  • inclement weather were once again being worn for fashion.

  • The earlier, shorter boots, mainly worn by teenagers

  • reflected a very space-age look. The lunar white

  • boots -which were calf-high - were very

  • reminiscent of astronaut boots. They were also much

  • more comfortable than spike-heeled dress shoes, which

  • were popular at the time and made dancing for long

  • periods of time quite easy. Adopted by teen dancers,

  • and first seen en-masse on afternoon discotheque

  • television shows, the boots were quickly named "go-go

  • boots" after the go-go dancers who wore them.




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The 60’s Version of Singing In The Rain

  • “My version of an umbrella”


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Hair By Vidal Sassoon

  • The top name in hairdressing during the Sixties was undoubtedly Vidal Sassoon whose customers included Mary Quant, Jean Shrimpton and Mia Farrow who he famously flew to America for, when she wanted her hair styled, while she was on set making ' the film Rosemary's Baby'. He had worked for 'Teazy Weazy' Raymond until 1955 and by the time the swinging Sixties arrived he had his own salon in Bond Street. Creations of his included the 'bob cut', and the 'five point geometric cut’.


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Kennedy with Cuban Exiles

United States President John F. Kennedy meets with Cuban exile leaders Jose San Romàn, Manuel Artime, and Colonel Eneido Oliva in Palm Beach, Florida, in December 1962. The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 seriously embarrassed the Kennedy administration, which was blamed by some for not giving it adequate support, while others criticized Kennedy for allowing it to take place at all.


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Space Race

  • Mercury Spacesuit- John Glenn, Friendship 7

  • This spacesuit was worn by John Glenn during the first orbital flight of a U.S. astronaut. The flight took place on February 20, 1962 and lasted for 4 hours and 55 minutes, during which time he traveled 75,679 miles and orbited the earth three times.

  • The spacesuit was developed by the B.F. Goodrich Company from the U.S. Navy MK-IV full pressure suit, and was selected by NASA in 1959 for use in Project Mercury.



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What was happening…

…in the 1960’s?


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One of the biggest nights in music

February 9, 1964, the newest musical fascination in Britain, the Beatles, are introduced by Ed Sullivan. The Beatles never looked back.

It has been estimated that 74 million people were watching the “Ed Sullivan Show” that night (3 times the amount of people who watch “Survivor” today). This night was recently ranked #1 on VH1’s Top Rock Moments on TV.


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Bob Dylan

Jimi Hendrix

Debut album released in 1962 that consisted of many folk and blues songs covers. He released a second album of all original songs entitled The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan. He grew to be a hero to folk music lovers across the country. However, in 1965, Dylan recorded an electric guitar-backed album and performance that was met by “boos” and groans from his fans and the crowd. Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone” broke the traditional time for a pop song (3 minutes) at 6 minutes total and was the number 2 song in the country.

Electric guitar pioneer and performer extraordinaire, Hendrix had a brief four year superstar reign before his death in 1970. He was responsible for turning many people’s ears with his innovative guitar riffs and ability to sing the blues. His popular hits consist of “Purple Haze,” “Foxy Lady,” “Hey Joe,” and a cover of Bob Dylan’s “All Along the Watchtower.”

Other Popular Musical Acts


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Simon & Garfunkle

This duo was the most successful folk rock group of the 1960’s. The group was hailed for their harmonic singing and acoustic and electric guitar work. Their first number one song was “Sounds of Silence” in 1966. Another popular song recognized today by many people who were not even alive in that time period was “Mrs. Robinson.” This song, along with many other Simon & Garfunkle songs, was featured in one of the 1960’s best films, The Graduate.

Other Popular Musical Acts



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Performances

Woodstock was a 3 day, 2 night music festival featuring performances from the following rock stars of that time period:

Joan Baez The Band Blood, Sweat, and Tears

Canned Heat Joe Cocker The Paul Butterfield Blues Band

Arlo Guthrie Grateful Dead Country Joe and the Fish

Tim Hardin Keef Hartly Creedence Clearwater Revival

Richie Havens Jimi Hendrix Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young

Janis Joplin Quill Incredible String Band

Santana Ravi Shankar Jefferson Airplane

John Sebastian Sha Na Na Melanie Mountain

Bert Sommer Sweetwater Ten Years After

The Who Johnny Winter Sly and the Family Stone


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At the Drive In

1960 – “Psycho” starring Janet Leigh and Anthony Perkins

1961 – “The Absent Minded Professor” starring Fred MacMurray

1961 – “101 Dalmations” a full length cartoon from Disney based on a classic children’s tale

1962 – “Dr No” starring Sean Connery as the still active James Bond

1963 – “From Russia with Love” starring Sean Connery in the 2nd Bond film

1964 – “Mary Poppins” starring Julie Andrews in a Disney movie about a magical nanny that combined live action and cartoon action

1965 – “The Sound of Music” starring Julie Andrews and won 5 Oscars, including Best Picture and Director

1966 – “Batman” starring the original Batman Adam West in the first movie of the popular series


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At the Drive In

1967 – “Bonnie and Clyde” starring Faye Dunaway and Warren Beatty

1967 – “The Producers” starring Zero Mostel and Gene Wilder

1967 – “You Only Live Twice” starring Sean Connery is the 5th Bond film in 5 years

1967 – “The Jungle Book” animated classic from Disney about a boy raised by animals in the jungle

1967 – “Planet of the Apes” starring Charlton Heston was the leading sci-fi movie of the era

1968 – “Yellow Submarine” an animated movie featuring the Beatles versus the Blue Meanies to the tunes of albums Rubber Soul, Revolver, and Sgt. Pepper

1968 – “Chitty Chitty Bang Bang” starring Dick Van Dyke and car that can fly and float




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The Tonight Show” began the 1960’s with Jack Paar as its host and was known as “The Jack Paar Tonight Show.” The show ended in 1962 as Johnny Carson became the new host of “The Tonight Show.”

The show was filmed earlier in the day before it would air at night. The show began playing at 11:15 p.m. with a

15 minute monologue. This segment’s time was eventually handed over to Ed McMahon and Skitch Henderson in February 1965. On January 2, 1967, the show’s opening time slot from 11:15-11:30 was dropped and began the 90 minute format to the show.

The show had several comedic bits that ranged from original pre-taped skits to live action bits to spoofs of commercials, movies, news stories, and other television shows. Johnny Carson retired in the 1990’s, being replaced with Jay Leno, after 30 years of hosting the late night success.


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THE

END


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