Urbanisation. The Growth of Towns & Cities. What does Urbanisation Mean?. Until about 200 years ago, most people lived a rural life. They lived and worked the land in the countryside. However, during the Industrial Revolution many people moved off the land and
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The Growth of Towns & Cities
Until about 200 years ago, most people lived a rural life. They lived and worked
the land in the countryside.
However, during the Industrial Revolution many people moved off the land and
into growing towns and cities. Factories became important places of
employment, so people moved to cities in search of work.
This led to a huge growth in the size and number of towns and cities.
This growth in the size and number of cities is called Urbanisation.
Urbanisation is continuing throughout the world. New cities are growing all the
time as more and more people leave their rural lives behind and move into
cities in search of work.
In essence, a rural to urban shift is taking place.
Dublin began as a Viking settlement. Like many other Viking settlements,
Dublin was an ideal place at the mouth of a river. From here the Vikings could
The Normans occupied Dublin in 1169. They built stone walls around the city.
Dublin became a Medieval city with narrow streets. Poor sanitation caused
The 16th-18th Centuries
Dublin was extended and many new streets were added in a grid-iron pattern.
Parks like St. Stephen’s Green were made and Georgian Houses were built.
The 19th Century
After 1800 many of the wealthy people who lived in the Georgian houses left
Dublin. Landlords bought these tenements and rented rooms to families. There
was huge overcrowding in these tenement buildings and poverty and disease
were widespread. The Dublin docklands became an important source of work.
Dublin became a distribution centre. Goods were distributed throughout Ireland
along the canal and railway lines.
The 20th Century
Dublin grew rapidly in the 20th century. The inner city slums were cleared and
people moved out to new suburbs like Ballyfermot, Crumlin, and Finglas.
Newer suburbs were then developed around the villages of Clondalkin, Lucan
The following zones can be seen in most cities;
1. A Central Business District (CBD)
2. Some smaller shopping areas
3. A number of shopping centres
4. Industrial areas
5. Open space for recreation / leisure.
Q. Where is the CBD in Dublin?
Q. Clondalkin village is an example of a small shopping area. Can you think of any others?
Q. What services are available for people in Clondalkin village?
Q. Can you name any?
Blanchardstown Shopping Centre – Blanchardstown
The Square – Tallaght
Dundrum Shopping Centre – Dundrum
Liffey Valley – Clondalkin/Lucan
Q. Can you name any industrial estates/technology parks around Dublin?
Q. Corkagh park is one example. Can you name any others?
Q. Can you think of any other areas/places that are used for leisure and recreation?
Q. What type of retailers set up in city centre locations?
In the suburbs there is much more land available. Most buildings are one or two storeys high.
Q. What type of retailers set up in suburban areas?
Q. Make a list of all the different types of buildings people live in.
Q. Where are you most likely to find each type of house, the city or the suburbs?
Q. How do these people get to work?
Q. Can you think of any problems commuting can create?
The table below shows the different methods of transport used by Dublin
Mode of TransportPercentage %
Q. Draw a pie chart to represent the information shown in the table.
Q. Which method of transport do most people use?
Q. What problems could this cause?
Q. What could be done to encourage more people to commute on their bikes?
Q. What does rush-hour traffic mean?
Q. At what times does rush-hour traffic occur?
Q. Why do you think it occurs at this time?
Q. Can you think of any ways to solve this problem?
Q. Travel time to the city centre has increased in recent years. True or False?
Q. Why do you think this is?
Q. Looking at Fig.9.8, can you identify any problem with the current Luas network?
Zones of Decline
Many places in the city centre are derelict sites. While many have been
redeveloped in recent years, there are still many run down buildings. These
buildings may be occupied by homeless people and drug addicts.
In the past there were many jobs available in city centres in small factories.
However, most of these factories have moved out to industrial estates in the
suburbs. Most jobs in the city centre are now skilled jobs requiring university
level education. In 2002, only 62% of children in Dublin city sat the Leaving
Certificate. Therefore many of them cannot find work in the city.
Crime is a big problem in many
inner city areas. A lot of crime is
People steal money and goods
from shops and people to pay for
The highest crime figures in Ireland
are in Dublin city centre.
Q. Why do you think this is?
Q. What could be done to try to solve this problem?
Since the 1960’s many people born in the city centre have had to move
to the new growing suburbs such as Ballymun, Tallaght, and Clondalkin.
This has left some young people disconnected from their families who
remain in the city centre. This can leave people feeling isolated.
This means knocking down old houses/flats and building new places for
people to live.
This means knocking down old houses/flats and buildings shops,
offices, restaurants or car parks.
Q. Can you name any place in Dublin where urban renewal has occurred?
Q. Can you name any place in Dublin where urban redevelopment has occurred?
Q. Can you think of any problems that are occurring in cities in the developing world?
(i). List the two soil types.
(ii). Explain two ways that the two soil types are different.
Two Irish soil types are, a). Brown Soils b). Podzol Soils
Two differences between them are,
Brown soils form under deciduous forests. They are fertile.
Podzol soils form under coniferous forests. They are infertile.
Altitude means height above sea level. It affects climate in the following way.
The higher you go, the colder it gets. The temperature drops 7°C for every
1000m you go up. There are two reasons for this.
a). The air is thinner and can hold less heat.
b). You are more exposed to the wind. This is called the wind chill factor.
Explain in detail 2 reasons why the population of Navan increased
from 4,000 people in 1971 to 26,000 in 2006.
Two reasons why Navan’s population increased were;
Explain in detail why there are so few people aged 70+ years in
There are so few people aged 70+ in Ethiopia because,
It is a poor country where many people have no access to safe drinking
water. There are many people who don’t have access to the health
system and so they are often sick. Ethiopia experiences frequent food
shortages and famine. Ethiopia has been involved in a war against
Eritrea for many years. All of these reasons mean that many people die
young, and very few people in Ethiopia live until their old age.
What does the term ‘Social Capital’ mean? How is it affected by
Social capital means the wealth of social connections and community
activity that take place in an area. Some communities have lots of
people who volunteer to run activities and clubs for old people and
teenagers. They have lots of clubs for various sports which the parents
help to organise and coach. They may also be involved in residents
associations, tidy towns committees, or environmental groups. These
communities would have a high level of social capital.
Social Capital is harmed by commuting because commuters spend less time in
their communities. They spend lots of time stuck in traffic, driving long
distances to work. Therefore, they are often tired when they get home and have
less time/motivation for voluntary activities.