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Role of Literature in the Paper • “Research becomes meaningful only when viewed in the context of the field’s developing knowledge.” • How can the contribution be judged outside of the current state of knowledge? • Citations serve to acknowledge others, direct readers to further information, and place research into the paradigm—either support, or showing a gap
Role of Citation in the Introduction • Credibility—the author knows the field • Introduction for non-expert reader • Context of the current state of knowledge • Shows gaps in knowledge • What needs cited? Depends on assumptions about the audience • ASSUME A GENERALLY KNOWLEDGEABLE ORGANIC CHEMIST AUDIENCE
Role of Citation in the Results/Discussion • Compare/contrast previous methods • Compare/contrast previous data • Validate experimental design and interpretations • What contribution(s) have been made to the field?
Role of Citation in Experimental • Indicates whether or not molecule has been made before • How well does current characterization match previously reported data? • Allows for comparisons of procedure and percent yield
Literature and Proposals • We won’t be proposing research based on literature, but here are some questions that can still be useful • What does the field know about the subject? • What studies have been done? • What methods have been used, and how useful were they? • What information is still needed? Writing in the Sciences, Penrose and Katz
Finding Literature: Index • We will use SciFinder Scholar • Free web-based access for IUB students • Advantages of SciFinder • Comprehensive (CAS numbers) • Search on topic, author • SEARCH ON STRUCTURE! • Search reference lists (backwards) or citation lists (forwards)
Citing Sources in the Text • Three major types • Name-year • Citation-sequence (most common for us) • Citation-name • Use of names • Direct citation—uses names in text when appropriate • Indirect citation—names only appear in references
Format of References • DEPENDENT ON THE JOURNAL! • We will follow JOC, and use almost exclusively primary journals as our sources • Format: Last Name, Initial(s).; Last name, Initials. Journal Abb.Year, Volume,pages.
Ethics • Academic Misconduct • Fabrication • Falsification • Plagiarism • Types of Plagiarism—Figure 3.4 in Writing in the Sciences • Direct plagiarism of words without quotes and citation • Mosaic—taking ideas and scattered words without credit • Paraphrase—restating ideas in own words without citation • Insufficient acknowledgment—unclear citation that does not allow reader to know what is original and what is borrowed
Authorship • Academic Misbehavior rather than misconduct • Authorship means • Contribution • Responsibility • Acknowledgments • Where does proofreading come in?