FRAMING THE FIVE PARAGRAPGH ESSAY Learning Objectives: • To read works with a common theme and compare the treatment of that theme by different authors • To interpret multiple levels of meaning in a text, specifically through the analysis of plot and allegory • To read, review, and respond to literary works that represent a range of social, historical, and cultural perspectives Common Core Standards: • RL.9-10.1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. • RL.9-10.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. • RL.9-10.3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. • RL.9-10.5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. • W.9-10.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Brooklyn Technical High School Freshman Composition Mr. Williams
Four Draft Paragraph Assignment • In class, you drafted four different paragraphs and then you composed another draft that was graded. • For the winter survival exercise, chose one item that you consider to be the most important item for one's survival. Explain why the item is so important. Compare that item to another item on the list. • Explain what it means to have morals. Identify at least three examples of moral behavior. • Using the data collected from your character chart, identify a character from Lord of the Flies who would be a good leader for the boys on the island. Support your answer with evidence from the text. • Identify a personal possession that is very important to you. Explain why it is so important. Explain why you would never want to part with this item. • Using the Writing Reviser on SAS Curriculum Pathways, write a second revision of your paragraphs. In the next class, submit the first revision with my notes, the second revision, and the statistics for the second revision. If you did not submit with your first revision the big picture points, your original draft, and/or your preliminary statistics, then you must submit the information during the next class.
New Words Spelling Words amateur ambassador • Vocabulary Words • arcane (adjective) • known or understood by very few; mysterious; secret; obscure • -arca is Latin is a box or chest of valuables • In the past, the methods of quantitative assessment were laborious and arcane . Vocabulary Words • ardor (noun) • great warmth of feeling; fervor; passion • -ard in Latin means to burn • She spoke persuasively and with ardor.
New Words Spelling Words analysis commissioner • Vocabulary Words • ascertain (verb) • To discover with certainty, as through examination or experimentation. • The prefix a- means towards • After a series of very tough questions, the police officers were able to ascertain the truth from the suspect. Vocabulary Words • assiduous (adjective) • Constant in application or attention; diligent; hardworking • A- means toward • -sedere in Latin means to sit • Assidere in Latin means to attend to or to sit down to • His staff has been assiduous at providing round-the-clock services.
MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITY • Scenario: World War 3 has just occurred and you and 9 other people find yourselves to be the only people left on the earth. You manage to all make it to a bunker, however, you all realize that if 3 of you wish to survive for many years, 7 of you will have to leave soon because there are not enough resources for all of you to survive. If all of you stay, then you will all live only for a maximum of 2 years. • In your bunker, you have the following facilities: sewage system, water, seeds, some clothes, a few books, some medical facilities but no operating materials, and a greenhouse. • In your group of ten, each of you has a chance to speak and explain why you think you should live. In the bunker, the following people are present: a scientist, a priest, a married couple who are hippies and drug addicts, a single pregnant woman with a 5 year old girl, an army officer who has mental instability of some sort but is useful nonetheless, an elderly woman, a disabled person, a lawyer, a dole bludger, and a doctor. You have ten minutes to decide whether some will leave and the others stay and to decide who will leave and who will stay. • When that is complete, you are to complete the chart and explain why you made your choices.
WRITING PROPOSAL • Paragraph: The following people should stay to avoid the nuclear holocaust. • Paragraph: The following people should leave and face the consequences of the nuclear holocaust. • Essay: The social and political impact of ethics and morals can be summarized in one word: sacrifice. • An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man. While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.In some countries (e.g., in the United States), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. • -WIKIPEDIA
THE FIVE PARAGRAPH ESSAY A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. It is not the only format for writing an essay, of course, but it is a useful model for you to keep in mind, especially as you begin to develop your composition skills. Introductory Paragraph See, first, Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of getting your reader involved in your essay. The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the paper: it tells the reader what the essay is about. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. Students are told from the first time they receive instruction in English composition that their introductory paragraphs should accomplish two tasks: They should get the reader's interest so that he or she will want to read want more. They should let the reader know what the writing is going to be about. The second task can be accomplished by a carefully crafted thesis statement. Writing thesis statements can be learned rather quickly. The first task — securing the reader's interest — is more difficult. First, admit that it is impossible to say or do or write anything that will interest everybody. With that out of the way, the question then becomes: "What can a writer do that will secure the interest of a fair sized audience?"Professional writers who write for magazines and receive pay for their work use five basic patterns to grab a reader's interest.
Evaluating the Introduction: Watching television is an experience shared by most adults and children. It is cheap, appealing, and within the reach of the general public. In this way, TV has become an important mass media around the world. Sadly, this resource isn’t used in a way that people could get the best possible benefits from it. The purpose of this essay is to persuade the reader that people shouldn’t watch too much television because the content of many TV programs is not educational; it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities; and it negatively affects people’s mental development. The first reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is because the content of many TV programs is not educational. Nowadays, we can see movies, series, and shows that present scenes of violence, sex, and drugs. This has established wrong concepts among the audience that influence them into having a negative behavior. Moreover, the impact this tendency has on children is worse because they grow up with the idea of a world where women must be slender and blonde to stand out, where problems can only be solved with money and violence, and where wars are inevitable. The second reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is because it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities. The time we spend watching TV could be applied to useful activities like exercise, reading, interacting with friends and family, activities that are a crucial for a healthy lifestyle. The third reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is because it negatively affects people’s mental development. According to several scientific studies, watching TV for prolonged periods of time has a negative effect over the intellectual development of children and leads to deterioration of the mental capacity in older people by causing both attention and memory problems in the long term. In conclusion, people shouldn’t watch too much television because the content of many TV programs is not educational; it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities; and it affects people’s mental development. However, this doesn’t mean that we should ban TV, but if we are going to watch it, we should do it with moderation. Television is a resource that we should learn to use through the right selection of programs by taking an active and critical attitude towards it.
Evaluating the Introduction: A lot of people, especially young people, go though the day without having breakfast. Many people believe that it is not necessary, or they say that they don’t have time for that, and begin their day with no meal. I believe that everyone should eat breakfast before going to their activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of breakfast, especially for students. The first reason why you should eat breakfast before going to school is for your health. When you skip breakfast and go to school, you are looking for a disease because it’s not healthy to have an empty stomach all day long. It’s very important to have a meal and not let your stomach work empty. All you are going to get is gastritis and a lot of problems with your health if you don’t eat breakfast. Another reason for eating breakfast is because you need food for to do well in your classes. You body and your brain are not going to function as good as they could because you have no energy and no strength. When you try to learn something and have nothing in your stomach, you are going to have a lot of trouble succeeding. A lot of people think that they should not eat because they are going to feel tired, but that’s not true. Breakfast is not a very big meal, and on the contrary, you’re going to feel tired if you don’t have breakfast because you have spent the entire previous night without food. The last reason to have breakfast every day is because you can avoid diseases if you eat some breakfast in the morning. If you don’t eat, you are going to get sick, and these diseases will have a stronger effect on you because you’re going to get sick easier than people who have breakfast every day. You have to realize that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, and you cannot skip it without consequences for your health, your school and your defense mechanism. It is better to wake up earlier and have a good breakfast that run to school without eating anything. It is time for you to do something for your health, and eating breakfast is the better way to start your day.
Evaluating the Introduction: In the past, I have never been inclined to participate in sports. Honestly, I didn’t like it, but many persons whom I lived with kept telling me everyday how good it was. Since the peer pressure was growing, I decided to go to the gym. It wasn’t until then that I could really understand people when they said exercise really helped a person get organized and keep yourself in a healthy physically and mentally. For starters, when you are a lazy person, it is difficult to take the first step, but it is all a matter of committing yourself to something that will provide you a lot of positive feedback. Once you start doing exercise and observing positive results, you actually enjoy it. It takes a lot of effort and strong will, but it's worth it. The principal thing to do is to participate in an activity you like. If you do you’ll start organizing your day in a way that enables you to do everything you have to, including exercising. You will no longer be a person stressed-out without time to carry on with all your activities. Second, it is obvious that once you exercise you will have a better condition. You will be healthier in a physical way. It is probable that you will lose weight and your muscles will get stronger and stronger. Your body will feel good, full of energy and it will respond immediately to any action you want to do, any activity that has to be done with high spirits. The third reason why exercising is good is that it affects you positively in a mental and psychological way. Doing exercise helps you set specific goals which along with strong will can be achieved. When you do that, you are aware of your abilities, accept your weaknesses, and your self-esteem goes up. Any sport distracts you because it helps you not to think about school, friends, problems, among other things. It brings you time to think about yourself and no one else. It helps you keep your mind busy and to avoid dangerous habits like drugs. Doing exercise is very important to any person of any age. The positive effects of exercising, which I’ve already mentioned, are like a chain. Once you do a sports activity that you like, you get organized; therefore, you start doing things the right way and get enormous benefits which make you feel good as a whole human being. You start living your life happily.
Evaluating the Introduction: "A dog is man's best friend." That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent housepets as they are good companions, they are civilized members of the household, and they are easy to care for. In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they're not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. Using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats will even fetch! In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don't even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don't often have "accidents." Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws, and owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be declawed. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as housepets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cleaning a litter box is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most catswill not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return. Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal housepet.
Writing an Effective Introduction: Careers in sports medicine can provide good pay and satisfying work environments. There are many jobs within the field of sports medicine, but most jobs fall into one of two categories. The first category involves sports injuries. Jobs in this area focus on helping people prevent or recover from sports-related injuries. Careers in this category, which range from occupational therapy to orthopedic surgery, often require advanced degrees or medical training. The second category involves helping people to achieve healthy lives or to improve their athletic performance. Jobs in this area include sports nutrition and physical training, and they typically require a certificate in the field as well as an undergraduate degree. Jobs in sports medicine are much more exciting than the average office job. For those who enjoy physical activity, sports medicine is just right because jobs in this field often requires people to be in constant motion most of the day. These jobs also require strong communication and people skills because they involve working with a variety of people with different needs. In addition, no two days in sports medicine are ever quite the same. Clients continually come and go as their needs change or their injuries heal. As with most health-care fields, sports medicine is growing, and the demand for people to fill jobs is always increasing. Jobs for physical therapists and physical therapist assistants will be among the fastest growing over the next decade. The pay is good, and layoffs are rare – even in a weak economy. For people with the right interests and skills, a career in sports medicine may be an excellent choice.
THE FIVE PARAGRAPH ESSAY Body — First paragraph: The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, most significant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. Body — Second paragraph: The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument, second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. Body — Third paragraph: The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. This hook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph.
THE FIVE PARAGRAPH ESSAY • Concluding paragraph: This paragraph should include the following: • an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph • a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement. • a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper. • a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper.) • http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/five_par.htm
LITERARY ANALYSIS: LORD OF THE FLIES • The Plot: • The Inciting Incident: the plane crashes on the island • The Exposition: the introduction of the characters and the setting • Ralph: the archetype of a hero • Jack: • the symbol of Freud’s “id” • the allegory of the devil who entices the boys to sin • The Conflict: the attempt to get rescued despite the savage acceptance that the island is a permanent home • The Climax: the brutal killing of the sow: the power of destruction triumph over the restraints of civilization • The Resolution: the boys are saved by the Naval officer before the evil on the island kills the only good that is left
LITERARY ANALYSIS: LORD OF THE FLIES • The Themes: • Everyone has a darkness within that must be discovered. • Either we control the darkness or it dominates us. • To ignore the fact that evil exists within us destroys al possibilities of learning from it. • Evil will always try to prevail at any cost.
LITERARY ANALYSIS: LORD OF THE FLIES • The Symbols and Allegories: • The Naval officer: symbolic of the pretension, pride, and destructiveness of humanity; qualities that have ruined the island and society as a whole. • The Beast: symbolic of the fear within the boys. They fear the unknown; the beast actually exists within their minds and within their hearts • The sow: a female pig • The death of Simon: situational irony: trying to disprove the existence of the beast, he replaces the beast and is killed • The butterflies: perfection, beauty, perfection • The flies: instinctive beings that swarm to a kill • The pig’s head: • An offering to the beast: symbolic of an irrational thought • Grins at Ralph as if to remind him that it’s a part of him • Tells Simon, “I’m a part of you.” • Called the Lord of the Flies, an expression of Beelzebub a.k.a the Devil • Jack: the allegory of the devil prevailing over God and all that is good
UNDERSTANDING VERB TENSES Strictly speaking, in English, only two tenses are marked in the verb alone, present (as in "he sings") and past (as in "he sang"). Other English language tenses, as many as thirty of them, are marked by other words called auxiliaries. Understanding the six basic tenses allows one to re-create much of the reality of time in his writing. Simple Present: They walk Present Perfect: They have walked Simple Past: They walked Past Perfect: They had walked Future: They will walk Future Perfect: They will have walked
UNDERSTANDING VERB TENSES Present Tense: expresses an action that is occurring now (Martina runs down the court and shoots the ball.) Past Tense: expresses an action that occurred in the past. (In the last lap, the runner fell and injured his knee.) Future Tense: expresses an action that will occur (The president will not return to Washington today.) Present Perfect Tense: expresses an action that occurred at an indefinite time in the past. (Miguel and Tim have already entered the information into the computer.) Past Perfect Tense: expresses an action that ended before some other past action (Paul had travelled several miles before he realized his mistake.) Future Perfect Tense: expresses an action that will end before some other future occurrence. (By the time school begins in August,. You will have saved enough money to buy the car.)
UNDERSTANDING VERB TENSES Each of the following sentences contains an error in the use of tenses. Give the correct form of the verb. Would you still have told that joke if we said we already heard it? Who found that the earth revolved around the sun? By the time we get to the picnic area, the rain will stop. In July my parents will be married for twenty-five years. If the books have been cataloged last week, why haven’t they been shelved? I would have agreed if you would have asked me sooner. Val claims that cats made the best pets. After Sam had answered, Mr. Catalano says, “There were no rabbits.” Before leaving the house, we have closed the windows. As a witness to the accident, Pam told the police what happened.
PREPARING FOR THE LITERATURE ESSAY • Review the prompts for Lord of the Flies • Prepare a 3-point outline for the essay • Draft an introduction for the essay • Draft a conclusion for the essay • An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man. While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.In some countries (e.g., in the United States), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. • -WIKIPEDIA