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Ecology Introduction. Chapter 18. Ecology. the study of the interdependence of living organisms the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Biological levels of organization.

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Ecology
Ecology

  • the study of the interdependence of living organisms

  • the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment



Ecology introduction

Sponge Bob Ecology?

Ecosystem

Organism

Population

Community


Ecology introduction

"It is an obvious truth, which has been taken notice of by many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."  -- Thomas Malthus, 1798


Interdependence
Interdependence many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • All living organisms interact with other living organisms


Parts of an ecosystem
Parts of an Ecosystem many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Biotic factors

    • Living things that affect the organisms

  • Abiotic factors

    • Non-living things that affect the organisms

  • Biotic and abiotic factors are interdependent


The niche
The Niche many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • A niche is a way of life

  • Includes all aspects of lifestyle

    • Range of tolerable conditions

    • Means of acquiring resources

    • Number of offspring

    • Interactions with environment

    • Time of day of activity

    • And on and on and on and …..


Changing environments
Changing Environments many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Tolerance curve

    • Set of boundaries that organisms require for survival


Acclimation
Acclimation many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Tolerance curves can be affected

    • Acclimation

    • Homeostasis


Surviving outside the tolerance zone
Surviving Outside the Tolerance Zone many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Escape

    • Migration

    • Hibernation


Niche differences
Niche differences many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Specialists

    • Have very narrow niches and tend to specialize on utilizing a resource other organisms are unable to use.


Niche differences1
Niche differences many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Generalists

    • Have broad niches and can tolerate a wide range of conditions


Energy transfer

Energy Transfer many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Producers
Producers many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Photosynthesis

  • Chemosynthesis


Measuring productivity
Measuring productivity many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Biomass

    • Mass of organic material produced in an ecosystem

  • Gross primary productivity (GPP)

    • Rate at which producers capture solar energy and produce organic material

  • Net primary productivity (NPP)

    • Rate at which biomass accumulates

    • Kcal/m2/yr

      = GPP– rate of respiration in producers


Net primary productivity
Net Primary Productivity many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Consumers
Consumers many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Herbivores- eat producers

  • Carnivores- eat consumers

  • Omnivores- eat producers and consumers

  • Detritivores- eat dead stuff or excrement

    • Decomposers- break down complex organic material


Energy flow
Energy Flow many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Trophic levels

    • Indicates the number of energy transfers

  • Only 10% of the energy in one level is available to the next


Food webs
Food Webs many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Interweaving diagram of food chains


Ecology introduction

owl many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

stoat

fox

rat

rabbit

beetle


Energy and nutrient flow patterns

Energy and Nutrient Flow Patterns many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Energy and nutrient flow
Energy and Nutrient Flow many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

Producers

Consumers

Energy

Nutrients

Inorganic Nutrients

Decomposers


Energy and nutrient flow1
Energy and Nutrient Flow many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

Producers

Consumers

Energy

Nutrients

Inorganic Nutrients

Decomposers


Energy does not cycle
Energy does not cycle many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

90%

90%

95%


Energy flow food chains
Energy Flow: Food Chains many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Energy flow food webs
Energy Flow: Food webs many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Matter does cycle
Matter Does Cycle many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."

  • Most important

    • Water

    • Carbon

    • Nitrogen

    • Phosphorous

    • Sulfur


Water cycle
Water Cycle many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."


Biogeochemical cycles nitrogen
Biogeochemical Cycles: Nitrogen many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."