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## Explicit Instruction

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What does high quality instruction during the whole group portion of a lesson look like?

- Respond without using the word EXPLICIT!

As a coach, how can I build the capacity of a teacher struggling with explicit instruction? What are some specific strategies I can provide to support teachers as they become more explicit in their instruction?

Essential QuestionConnecting Students to Learning Through Explicit Teaching.

Explicit literacy instruction is described as “instruction that does not leave anything to chance and does not make assumptions about skills and knowledge that children will acquire on their own” (p. 363).

Torgesen, J. K., (2004)

Lessons Learned from Research on Interventions for Students who have Difficulty Learning to Read.

Essential Instructional Delivery Components

Boyles, N. (2001)

Chapter 4: Understanding explicit instruction. In N. Boyles, Teaching Written Response to Text: Constructing Quality Answers to Open-Ended Comprehension Questions.

When students actively participate in their learning, they achieve greater success.

- The teacher must elicit student responses several times per minute, for example ask students to say, write, or do something.
- Highly interactive instructional procedures keep students actively engaged, provide students with adequate practice, and help them achieve greater success.

Pacing is the rate of instructional presentations and response solicitations.

- The pace of instruction is influenced by many variables such as task complexity or difficulty, relative newness of the task, and individual student differences.
- When tasks are presented at a brisk pace, three benefits to instruction are accomplished:
- (a) students are provided with more information
- (b) students are engaged in the instructional activity
- (c) behavior problems are minimized (students stay on‐task when instruction is appropriately paced).

Think time (adequate processing time) is the amount of time between the moment a task is presented and when the learner is asked to respond.

- Time to pause and think should vary based on the difficulty of the task relative to the student(s).
- If a task is relatively new, the amount of time allocated to think and formulate a response should be greater than that of a task that is familiar and in the learners' repertoire.

This is an essential teacher skill to ensure that all learners are mastering the skills the teacher is presenting.

- Watching and listening to student responses provides the teacher with key instructional information.
- Adjustments may be made during instruction.
- Teachers should be constantly scanning the classroom as students respond in any mode.

Students should receive immediate feedback to both correct and incorrect responses.

- Corrective feedback needs to be instructional and not accommodating. Feedback to reinforce correct responses should be specific.
- Feedback should not interfere with the timing of the next question/response interaction of the teacher and student.
- Feedback that does not meet these criteria can interrupt the instructional episode and disrupt the learner's ability to recall.

Characteristics of Explicit Instruction

Explicit Instruction is characterized by:

- Intentional teaching of well defined skills or strategies that are broken down and taught directly in a series of carefully sequenced steps
- Clear and consistent teacher wording OR clear and consistent teacher instructions
- Extensive teacher modeling or demonstration of skills and strategies before students are asked to perform them independently
- “Thinking aloud” procedures that draw attention to the step-by-step process of applying skills and strategies that is eventually internalized during proficient reading

Coyne, M. D., et.al. (2009). Direct instruction of comprehension: Instructional examples from intervention research on listening and reading comprehension.

Instructional Routine

Explicit Instruction

I DO: Explain, model, think-aloud

WE DO: Student engagement

Practice

Immediate corrective feedback

small, flexible group instruction

They Do: Students Collaborate to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts-”Student Accountable Talk”

YOU DO: Independent application

16

Explicit Instruction: The “I DO”

- Set the purpose
- Why do we need to learn this.
- This is crucial for older students.
- Do not ask questions during the I do
- This is the time to show your brain thinking through the process.

“I DO”-Teacher Talking (3-5 mins)

- The teacher provides the background knowledge necessary for student success.
- During this portion of the lesson, the teacher models the expectation through a step by step “think-aloud.”

“WE DO”- Teacher and Students Talking

This is the time to ask questions and give explicit feedback.

“WE DO”

This portion of the lesson occurs once the teacher has modeled and believes students are ready to practice the presented skill.

Students are fully engaged in this portion of the lesson. The student is participating in guiding practice.

Students may be working in small, flexible groups or pairs.

The teacher is continuously monitoring student attainment of skill through formative assessments

“They DO Together” Students talking

This is the time for students to practice cooperatively together to practice the new knowledge through student accountable talk and active student learning.

“YOU DO” Students Working

Independent Practice

During this portion of the lesson, students must now work independently at showing their attainment of the skill.

The teacher must ensure that every student is able to meet with success.

This is the time to be the coach and cheerleader.

Circulate to make sure students are successful.

Explicit Instruction is NOT:

Replacing the Inquiry method, there is a time and a place for inquiry, when students have learned the skill or to engage the learner in a topic

Ditto or activity based instruction

Independent work

Lecture Based- teacher stand and deliver

Only for whole group, explicit instruction must be used in the teacher directed group as well

Explicit Instruction is:

The way to strategically deep teach the State Standards, strategies and skills students need in their learning

A gradual release of responsibility for students

Modeled

Guided

Independent

Revisiting the Essential Question

- As a coach, how can I build the capacity of a teacher struggling with explicit instruction? What are some specific strategies I can provide to support teachers as they become more explicit in their instruction?
- Think Pair Share Exit Slip
- Write, turn and talk, whole group share

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