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Cellular Respiration Unit. Overview of Respiration. aerobic = requires oxygen to occur (ex: cellular respiration) vs. anaerobic = does not require oxygen to occur (ex: glycolysis and fermentation). Overview of Respiration (cont). Organic Compounds. Glycolysis. ATP.

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overview of respiration
Overview of Respiration

aerobic = requires oxygen to occur

(ex: cellular respiration)

vs.

anaerobic = does not require oxygen to occur

(ex: glycolysis and fermentation)

overview of respiration cont
Overview of Respiration (cont)

Organic Compounds

Glycolysis

ATP

Oxygen Present

Oxygen Absent

Fermentation

(anaerobic)

Cellular Respiration

(aerobic)

No

ATP

ATP

glycolysis
Glycolysis

- takes place in the cytoplasm of cells

- always occurring and does not require oxygen

- occurs before cellular respiration or fermentation

glycolysis cont
Glycolysis (cont)

- 2 ATP are used to start process

- breaks down glucose into a net of 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, and 2 NADH

- Why is there a net of 2 ATP?

glycolysis cont1
Glycolysis (cont)

- Why is there a net of 2 ATP?

Used

Made

4 - 2 = 2

glycolysis cont2
Glycolysis (cont)

- products (pyruvate and NADH) enter either cellular respiration or fermentation

- Efficiency = 3.5 % (only 2 ATP are made)

overview of cellular respiration
Overview of Cellular Respiration

= releases chemical energy from sugars and other organic compounds to make ATP when oxygen is present

overview of cellular respiration cont
Overview of Cellular Respiration (cont)

- occurs in the mitochondria of cells

overview of cellular respiration1
Overview of Cellular Respiration

1) Mitochondria

2) Pyruvate (from glycolysis)

3) Krebs Cycle

takes place in

matrix of mitochondria

4) ATP and CO2

5) Movement to Stage 2

6) Energy from Krebs Cycle & O2

7) ATP and H20

overview of respiration1
Overview of Respiration

Organic Compounds

Glycolysis

ATP

Oxygen Present

Oxygen Absent

Fermentation

(anaerobic)

Cellular Respiration

(aerobic)

No

ATP

ATP

cellular respiration 2 stages
Cellular Respiration – 2 Stages

* occurs in the mitochondria

1) Krebs Cycle

= produces molecules that carry energy to the second stage of cellular respiration

cellular respiration 2 stages cont
Cellular Respiration – 2 Stages (cont)

- pyruvate from glycolysis is broken down

- some ATP and other energy forms are made

- carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product

cellular respiration 2 stages cont1
Cellular Respiration – 2 Stages (cont)

2) Electron Transport Chain

- made of proteins

- uses energy from Krebs cycle and oxygen to make ATP

- water and heat are given off as waste products

cellular respiration 2 stages cont2
Cellular Respiration – 2 Stages (cont)

Efficiency of Cellular Respiration

= 66% (38 ATP are made)

equation for cellular respiration
Equation for Cellular Respiration

Reactants Products

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

(sugar = (oxygen) (carbon (water)

glucose) dioxide)

fermentation
Fermentation

- starts with glycolysis

- does not make ATP (but allows glycolysis to continue)

overview of respiration2
Overview of Respiration

Organic Compounds

Glycolysis

ATP

Oxygen Present

Oxygen Absent

Fermentation

(anaerobic)

Cellular Respiration

(aerobic)

No

ATP

ATP

fermentation cont
Fermentation (cont)

Types

1) Lactic Acid Fermentation

- occurs in your muscle cells

- produces lactic acid, results in muscle fatigue and cramps

- produces NAD+ that goes back to glycolysis

fermentation cont1
Fermentation (cont)

2) Alcoholic Fermentation

- produces alcohol (ethyl) and carbon dioxide

- produces NAD+ that goes back to glycolysis

importance of fermentation
Importance of Fermentation

- produces food products we use (bread, cheese, yogurt)

- allows glycolysis to continue

- microorganisms in digestive tract break down food (allows more nutrients to be absorbed)