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Animal/Dairy Science 434

Animal/Dairy Science 434

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Animal/Dairy Science 434

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  1. Kangaroo Rat Human Animal/Dairy Science 434 Lec 2: Female comparative anatomy; History of Reproductive Physiology

  2. Ovarian Differences Mare Cow Sow

  3. Mare Preovulatory Tertiary Follicle Blood vessels and connective tissue in medulla Internal CL Mare Cow Sow Cow, Sow, Ewe, Human • Cortex on outside • Ovulation can occur on any point of the ovary • Inversion of the cortex and medulla. • Ovulation occurs at the Ovulation Fossa

  4. Uterine and Cervical Differences Sow Mare Cow

  5. Advanced Duplex (Opossum) Duplex (Rabbit, Mouse) Bicornuate (Pig) Two Uterine Horns Two Uterine Horns Two Uterine Horns (long) Two Cervices Two Cervices One Vagina Common Uterine Body Two Vaginas One Cervix One Vagina Smaller Uterine Horns No Uterine Horn, All Uterine Body Larger Uterine Body with Smaller Uterine Horns Bicornuate (Cow, Ewe, Doe) Bicornuate (Mare) Simplex (Human)

  6. Human Tract

  7. Human Tract

  8. Mare SOW Uterine Body Uterine Body Longitudinal Folds There are no obstacles in the mare after the fornix vagina Cervix Sow cervix has many interdigitating pads Note: Sow does not have fornix vagina Cervix Os Cervix Os Cervix Fornix Vagina Vagina Vagina

  9. Cervix COW Internal Os Cervical Ring Cervical Ring Fornix Fornix External Os Fornix Anterior Vagina EWE Anterior Vagina

  10. Cervix Cervical Folds FV IP Mare Sow

  11. External Genitalia Sow Mare Cow Ewe

  12. Human Tract

  13. External Genitalia

  14. Posterior Vagina (Vestibule) Fornix Vulva-Vaginal Sphincter Mucosa Vagina Anterior Vagina Cervix Stratified Squamous Epithelium Columnar Epithelium Urethra Submucosa Submucosa

  15. Avian Female Anatomy Ovary Infundibulum perivitelline membrane chalazae albumen Magnum shell membrane Oviduct Isthmus Uterus cleaving blastodisc Shell Gland Intestine Right Oviduct vagina shell cloaca Left side of Reproductive Tract Develops!!

  16. Chicken Ovary Hierarchical Follicular Status

  17. Chicken Tract Shell Gland Oviduct Ovary

  18. Generation of Animals Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology • Fetus arises from menstrual blood • Seminal plasma initiates the conversion of menstrual blood • Semen from all parts of body Aristotle 384-322 BC

  19. Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology • Fallopius (1562) • Describes the oviduct • Coiter (1573) • Describes the corpus luteum • Regnier de Graff (1672) • Describes the antral follicle (Graafian Follicle) • van Leewenhoek (1677) • Develops the microscope • Describes spermatozoa in semen

  20. Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology • Spallanzani (1780) • Sperm were the fertilizing agent in semen • Successful artificial insemination of a dog • Dumas (1825) • Proves sperm the fertilizing agent

  21. Modern Reprod. Physiology • Gonads produce steroid hormones • Cyclicity in females • Radioimmunoassay (RIA) • Artificial Insemination • Semen Cryopreservation • Prostaglandin used to control estrous cycles • Biotechnology

  22. Approach to Applications • Develop basic knowledge of how system works • Investigate methods that can perturb the system • Manipulate the system to improve reproduction

  23. Enhancing Reproduction • Small improvements have profound effects on production • 3% improvement in birth rate results in an additional: • 1 million beef calves/year • 3.2 million pigs/year • 3.7 million gallons of milk/year

  24. Current Trends • Continuing need to: • improve reproductive performance • understand how to apply new technology Metabolic and Physiologic Changes Production Reproduction

  25. Limiting Reproduction Pets Insects Humans Wildlife