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Networking and Security Issues in Digital Library. Dr. R. Radhakrishna Pillai IIM Kozhikode. What is the Internet?. The largest computer network in the world (a network of networks)

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networking and security issues in digital library

Networking and Security Issues in Digital Library

Dr. R. Radhakrishna Pillai

IIM Kozhikode

what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • The largest computer network in the world (a network of networks)
  • Information exchange is seamless using open, non-proprietary standards and protocols, within interconnected networks
  • Spirit of information sharing and open access underlies the Internet.
slide4

Networking Components

  • Hosts (end Systems)
  • Server
  • Packet Switch/Router
  • Modem
  • Mobile
  • Base Station
  • Satellite link
slide5

Networking Protocol

  • The rule for exchanging information between two computers
slide6

End-to-end Communication

  • The communication always takes place between two end systems (hosts)
slide7

Network Core

  • The network core comprises of switches
  • or routers
slide8

Circuit Switching

  • In Circuit Switching the network resources (e.g., capacity/bandwidth) are reserved for communication
slide9

Circuit Switching

  • In Circuit Switching the network resources (e.g., capacity/bandwidth) are reserved for communication
slide10

Packet Switching

  • In Packet Switching the network resources (e.g., capacity/bandwidth) are NOT reserved for communication. Packets between various hosts share common resources
slide11

Classification of Networks

  • Packet switched networks have “Efficient” utilization of resources (e.g. The Internet) compared to circuit switched networks (e.g., The Telephone Network)
slide12

Access Networks

  • Access networks connect the end-systems to the core network. Different technologies are used for access
slide13

Access Networks

  • Access networks connect the end-systems to the core network. Different technologies are used for access (e.g. Hybrid fiber-coaxial access)
slide14

Access Networks

  • Access networks connect the end-systems to the core network. Different technologies are used for access (e.g. Home Network)
slide15

Delays in Networks

  • Various components of packet delay include
    • Nodal processing delay
    • Queueing delay
    • Transmission delay
    • Propagation delay
slide16

Delays in Networks

  • Dependence of Queueing delay on traffic intensity
slide17

Delays in Networks

  • Smaller sized packets result in smaller end-to-end delays
slide18

Protocol Stack

  • Layers of functions with standardised interface between them
slide19

Protocol Stack

  • Layers of functions with standardised interface between them
storage area networks san
Storage Area Networks (SAN)
  • Storage use is growing explosively
  • Managing locally attached storage is difficult
    • Backup
    • Access by multiple servers
  • Combines the best of storage and networking technologies to provide low latency, high bandwidth, high availability interconnect
  • Components
    • Servers
    • Storage Fabric
storage area networks san1
Storage Area Networks (SAN)
  • SAN enables storage resources and server resources to grow independently
  • Storage on a given server can be increased or decreased as needed without complex reconfiguring or re-cabling of devices.
  • Enforcing security policies for access rights to a given device is a core part of the infrastructure
  • Data can be transferred directly from device to device without server intervention
  • The primary technology used in storage area networks today is Fibre Channel.
internet services world wide web
Internet Services – World Wide Web
  • An application that uses the Internet transport functions
  • A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture
  • Based on HTML -standard hypertext language used in Web
  • Handles text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound
internet challenges
Internet Challenges
  • Internet Regulation
    • Technical organizations (e.g., World Wide Web Consortium) develop standards governing the Internet’s functionality
    • These organizations are not formally charged in any legal or operational sense with responsibility for the Internet
    • How to control controversial content on the Web?
internet challenges continued
Internet Challenges (continued)
  • Internet Expansion
    • Tremendous Internet traffic growth has strained some elements of the network
      • Slower retrieval times
      • Unreliable data transmission
      • Denial of service by overloaded servers
    • Approaches to overcoming this congestion include
      • Improved hardware technology
      • Improved Web management software
internet challenges continued1
Internet Challenges(continued)
  • Internet Privacy - Web sites collect information with and without consumers’ knowledge
    • Cookie - small data file placed on users’ hard drives when a site is first visited. Collects data on pages visited and content viewed.
    • Three potential approaches to the privacy issue
      • Government lets groups develop voluntary privacy standards; does not take any action now unless real problems arise
      • Government recommends privacy standards for the Internet; does not pass laws at this time
      • Government passes laws now for how personal information can be collected and used on the Internet
    • Financial transaction security also a concern
intranets
Intranets
  • A private network that uses Internet software and TCP/IP protocols
    • Provide employees with easy access to corporate information
    • Used to deploy corporate applications
      • Examples – policies and procedures manuals; human resource forms; product catalogs
    • Security is a concern
      • Security measures include – public key security, encryption, digital certificates, firewalls
extranets
Extranets
  • An extension of an intranet to selected outside business partners, such as suppliers, distributors, and key customers
    • Provide business partners with easy access to corporate information and easy collaboration
  • Security
    • Critical to prevent unwanted entry into internal systems
    • Virtual private networks (VPNs) are often used to add security to Internet communication
operational characteristics of internet
Operational Characteristics of Internet
  • Internetworking technologies are based on open standards
  • Internetworking technologies operate asynchronously
  • Internet communications have inherent latency
  • Naturally decentralised
  • Scalable
the rise of internetworking business implications
The rise of Internetworking: Business Implications
  • Network becomes a computer
  • Quicker realization of economic value
  • Emergence of real-time infrastructure: Better data better decisions, improved process visibility, Improved process efficiency, From make-to-sell to sense-and-respond
  • Broader exposure to operational threats
  • New models of service delivery
  • Managing legacies
slide32

Future Internet Initiatives

  • Internet2
    • A collaboration among more than 180 U.S. universities to develop leading-edge networking and advanced applications for learning and research.
    • A group of very high bandwidth networks on the Internet.
    • Partnership between universities, industry, and government.
  • Next Generation Internet (NGI)
    • Federal government led initiative to advance Internet technology and applications.
securing infrastructure against malicious threats
Securing Infrastructure against Malicious Threats
  • Threats:
    • External attacks – DoS attacks, DDoS, Spoofing
    • Intrusion
    • Viruses and Worms
dos ddos
DoS/DDoS
  • Easy to execute, difficult to defend against
  • Abrupt termination of conversation
  • Attack from different sites – monitoring difficult
  • Degradation of service attack
intrusion
Intrusion
  • Get access to company’s internal IT infrastructure
    • User name, password
    • Sniffer software
    • Vulnerabilities left in the software
  • Difficult to figure out what intruders might have done inside
viruses and worms
Viruses and Worms
  • Replicate and spread themselves (worms)
  • Virus needs assistance to replicate
  • The Code Red Worm (2001)
securing infrastructure against malicious threats1
Securing Infrastructure against Malicious Threats
  • Defensive Measures
    • Security Policies
    • Firewalls
    • Authentication
    • Encryption
    • Patching and Change management
    • Intrusion detection and network monitoring
securing infrastructure against malicious threats2
Securing Infrastructure against Malicious Threats

A HOLISTIC APPROACH IS THE NEED OF THE DAY