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Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery. National Human Trafficking Resource Center. Named after the North Star that guided slaves towards freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

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Human trafficking and modern slavery

Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery

National Human Trafficking Resource Center


Human trafficking and modern slavery

Named after the North Star that guided slaves towards freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Polaris Project has been providing a comprehensive and community-based approach to combating human trafficking since 2002.

Creative Commons: Dace Schmidt


Polaris project programs
Polaris Project Programs freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • National Human Trafficking Resource Center

  • U.S. Policy

  • Direct Client Services (DC and NJ)

  • Public Outreach and Communications

  • Fellowship

  • International Programs

Polaris Project


Agenda goals
Agenda/Goals freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • What is human trafficking?

  • Is this really a problem in the modern day?

  • What is the legal definition?

  • Who is involved in human trafficking?

  • How can I identify and understand victims?

  • What can I do to take action?


What is human trafficking

What is Human Trafficking? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Human trafficking
Human Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

“It ought to concern every person, because it is a debasement of our common humanity. It ought to concern every community, because it tears at our social fabric…I’m talking about the injustice, the outrage of human trafficking, which must be called by its true name- modern slavery.” -President Obama

United States Department of State


International national local
International, National, Local freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Trafficking victims protection act
Trafficking Victims Protection Act freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

22 USC § 7102


The a m p model
The A-M-P Model freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Sex trafficking of minors
Sex Trafficking of Minors freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Force, Fraud, and Coercion are not required for minors induced into commercial sex acts.


Action
Action freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Microsoft Free Images


Means
Means freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Means force
Means - Force freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Kidnapping

  • Confinement

  • Physical Assault

  • Sexual Assault, Rape

  • Violence

Polaris Project


Means fraud
Means - Fraud freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Fraudulent employment offers or contracts

  • False promises about work and living conditions

  • False promises of education

  • Withholding wages

Microsoft Free Images


Means coercion
Means - Coercion freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Threats of deportation or arrest

  • Blackmail

  • Threats to life, person safety, family members or other victims

  • Debt bondage

  • Withholding legal documents

  • Psychological manipulation

Microsoft Free Images


Purpose
Purpose freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Top: PolarisProject

Department of Health and Human Services


True or false
True or False freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Trafficking

victims must be foreign nationals.

Trafficking requires state or international border crossing.

Trafficking victims must be kidnapped and/or restrained physically.

If a victim consented prior to abuse or was paid, it can still be trafficking.


True or false1
True or False freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Myths & Misconceptions

Trafficking victims must be foreign nationals.

False:

Trafficking victims in a country can be either citizens of that country or foreign nationals.


True or false2
True or False freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Myths & Misconceptions

Trafficking requires a state or international border-crossing.

False:

Although transportation may be involved and although the word connotes movement, the legal definition of trafficking does not require transportation.


Scope of human trafficking

Scope of Human Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Scope of human trafficking1
Scope of Human Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Worldwide, nearly 21 million people are victims of forced labor [human trafficking]

(ILO, 2012)


Child sex trafficking
Child Sex Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • U.S. and Global Estimates

  • 100,000 children in the sex trade in the U.S.

  • Up to 2 million children experiencing commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) globally


What are safe harbor laws
What are Safe Harbor Laws? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Prevent Prosecution of victims

  • Ensure that “coercion” is not required to prosecute sex trafficking of children

  • Protect child victims byproviding specialized services


Human trafficking cases on national hotline
Human Trafficking Cases on National Hotline freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Cases Reported to the NHTRC, 2007-2012


International cases on the nhtrc hotline
International Cases on the NHTRC Hotline freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Cases Reported to the NHTRC, 2007-2013


Human trafficking types victims traffickers

Human Trafficking – Types, Victims, Traffickers freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


3 categories of human trafficking
3 Categories of freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.Human Trafficking


Who is vulnerable
Who Is Vulnerable? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Victims of Past Violence/Abuse

Financially Vulnerable

Runaway and Homeless Youth

Temporary Visa Holders/

Undocumented Foreign Nationals


Selected examples from recent cases
Selected Examples from Recent Cases freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Foreign National men with legal status and work visas

  • Homeless men, U.S. citizen and foreign nationals

  • Citizens and Foreign Nationals with disabilities

  • Runaway: 12-year old US citizen girl

  • Young women and girls from impoverished areas of Mexico

United States Department of State


Recruitment
Recruitment freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

“Girls who ran away from home or were put out by their parents. Ladies who were pretty but were on welfare, drop outs, you know you can smell desperation. If she is hungry, she will go.” -Former Pimp

United States Department of State


Who are the traffickers
Who are the Traffickers? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Any demographic

  • Individuals and groups

  • Street gangs and organized crime

  • Businesses or contractors

  • Different levels of organization and centralization

Traffickers are people who exploit others for profit

Microsoft Free Images


Economics 101 demand
Economics 101: Demand freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Where there is a demand,

there will be a supply…

  • Multiple types of “demand”

  • Sex – Pimps, brothel owners, strip club owners, escort services “demand”

  • Sex – Customers demand commercial sex

  • Labor – Businesses “demand” workers

  • Labor – Consumers “demand” cheap products


Johns who buys sex
“Johns” - Who buys Sex? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

1 out of every 5 to 6 adult men in the U.S. admit to having purchased commercial sex.

What rates are present in other countries?

United States Department of State


Who demands
Who Demands? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Sex trafficking

Sex Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Where does sex trafficking occur
Where Does Sex Trafficking Occur? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Street Prostitution

  • Commercial Front &Residential Brothels

  • Pornography & Stripping

  • Escort Services

  • Internet “Web-cam”

  • Online

  • Where Else??


Labor trafficking

Labor Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Where does labor trafficking occur
Where does Labor Trafficking Occur? freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Agriculture

  • Construction

  • Domestic Work

  • Peddling/Begging

  • Traveling Sales Crews

  • Drug Trafficking

  • Bonded Labor

  • Where Else?

United States Department of State


Labor trafficking vs exploitation
Labor Trafficking vs. Exploitation freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Unfair

Wages

&

Poor living and working conditions


Vulnerability
Vulnerability freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

“I had one small child and a wife,

and we wanted a better life for our family.

I knew that if I worked in America, I could make more money than if I stayed in Thailand.”

-SathapornPornsrisirisak

Creative Commons: Wakx


Recruitment sathaporn s story
Recruitment: Sathaporn’s Story freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

“When we arrived in America, we were not offered the welding job as stated on the contract We were forced to work in a restaurant in (L.A.) instead.”

-SathapornPornsrisirisak

Microsoft Free Images


Sathaporn s story living and working conditions
Sathaporn’s Story freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.Living and Working Conditions

“There was no electricity or gas. We were not able to go anywhere because our passports were taken away.” -SathapornPornsrisirisak

Microsoft Free Images


Sathaporn s story escape
Sathaporn’s Story freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.Escape

“Because of these terrible conditions, fifteen of us decided to escape... others were too scared to leave.”

-SathapornPornsrisirisak

Microsoft Free Images


Identifying and understanding victims

Identifying and Understanding Victims freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Victim identification
Victim Identification freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Isolation

Debt

Fear

Guarded/ Monitored

Language Barriers

Confinement

Threats to Loved Ones

Shame, Self Blame

No ID/ Documents

Debt Bondage

Hopelessness

Misinformation

Resignation


Indicators trafficking
Indicators: Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Indicators labor trafficking
Indicators: Labor Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Indicators child sex trafficking
Indicators: Child Sex Trafficking freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Red flags sex trafficking adults
Red Flags: Sex Trafficking (Adults) freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


National human trafficking resource center nhtrc

National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

24/7 Toll-Free National Hotline

1-888-373-7888


Hotline overview
HOTLINE OVERVIEW freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Nhtrc functions
NHTRC Functions freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Central Hub


Nhtrc services
NHTRC Services freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


What to expect
What to Expect freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Speak to a trained Call Specialist 24/7

  • To speak in your native language

  • To be asked: who, what, when, where

  • A choice to leave callback information or remain anonymous

Polaris Project


Nhtrc tools
NHTRC Tools freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Database of over 2,700 comprehensive social service, law enforcement and training referrals

  • Resource Library of general information and training materials on diverse topics related to human trafficking

  • 208 Specialized city and state-based emergencyreferral & reporting protocols

  • Case tracking database - ability to generate statistical reports on call trends for every single record (75,000)


Call types
Call Types freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


How you can help

How You Can Help freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.


Current global project
Current Global Project freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

  • Mapping and Documenting every single anti-trafficking hotline anywhere in the world

  • Connecting with every hotline and building relationships

  • Offering training, and new technologies to anti-trafficking hotlines

  • Building the Global Human Trafficking Hotline Network (GHTHN)


Contacting the nhtrc
Contacting the NHTRC freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project’s vision is for a world without slavery.

Call Us 24/7: 1-888-373-7888

Email: nhtrc@polarisproject.org

Report a Tip Online or Access Resources: www.traffickingresourcecenter.org

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