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ANDEAN CONDOR: ( Vultur gryphus) Species Action Plan PowerPoint Presentation
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ANDEAN CONDOR: ( Vultur gryphus) Species Action Plan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ANDEAN CONDOR: ( Vultur gryphus) Species Action Plan

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  1. ANDEAN CONDOR: (Vultur gryphus) Species Action Plan Timothy K. M. Saunders, and J.P Mendenhall. Executive Summary The Andean condor, Vultur gryphus, a New World Vulture (family Carthitidae) native to the Andes mountain range. Culturally significant, it has the largest wing span of any land bird in the world, averaging 9.5ft (Ferguson-Lees & Christie, 2001). Unfortunately, although superbly adapted for scavenging in mountainous areas the life-history strategy of the Andean Condor has caused it to become at risk of extinction. This is due to interactions between intrinsic factors and human threats. This report has attempted to assemble the key threats (changes in farming practices, land use and persecution), the current conservation efforts (largely reintroduction and captive breeding) and a plan for its future survival with 10 year goals. Action Plan Development Base on data obtained from scientific research, conservation NGOs, and government wildlife authorities . • Threats • Changes in agricultural and hunting practice within and around the Andes are thought to be behind the decline of the Andean condor in most of the countries within its range. • Accidental and deliberate poisoning, including renal failure by veterinary drugs such as the pain killer Diclofenac. (Recently having become a new threat in Chile, having been passed for use in cattle (Richards et al., 2006). • Reduced carrion availability. Largely due to removal by pick-up trucks. • Collisions with power lines. • Yawar Fiesta- a blood sport and cultural tradition in some Peruvian villages, involving condors, alcohol and bulls. Some sources suspect a high casualty rate amongst the condors, several of which may be used per village community (BirdLife International, 2012). • Low genetic variability across the species range (Uzeda & Wallace, 2007) (Hendrickson et al., 2003). This is thought to be due to the huge dispersal ability of the condor and a decline in some regions. This results in increased susceptibility of the whole population to disease. • Feed in groups- higher loss due to poisoning. 3a. Table 1: Increases in extinction risk due to some intrinsic features of Vultur gryphus 3b. Figures 3a,b,c: Capture and treatment of a female condor in the Yawar Fiesta. Hamilton-James, 2012. Current Conservation Efforts • Taxonomy & Distribution • Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) is a highly distinctive species. • Only 2 extant species of condor (Vultur gryphus and Gymnogypscalifornianus (circled in red on fig1). • However, inferences on threats maybemadefromother vulture occupying similar niche space and thus may facesimilarthreats. • Gypsbengalensis isa vulture speciesthathas suffereddeclinesofupto97%duetopainkilling veterinarydrug Diclofenac in cattle. Table 2: Current conservation programs in place by country. Figure1:PhylogenetictreeincludingtheNewWorld Vultures (family Carthitidae), adapted from Sibley & Monroe, 1990. 2 condor species circled red. • Andean condor is extantin7countriesinSouthAmerica(alongtherangeoftheAndes. • Currentestimate:6200individuals.(Uzeda&Wallace,2007). • Signsofshrinkage,especiallyinBoliviaandColombia-alreadyverysmallpopulations. (Uzeda&Wallace,2007). • Occasional nesting in Brazil and other non-Andes sites. Species Action Plan Figure2:ApproximatedistributionoftheAndean condoradaptedfromLambertucci,2007. • Conservation Status • BirdLife International, 2012 • Current IUCN Red List status is Near Threatened. The Andean condor does not meet the criteria for a category of threat for several reasons: • Lack of data, especially with regard to population and sub-population count, dynamics and trends. • Lack of international collaboration- cohesive effort needed to accurately estimate the total population size. • Large species range- whole length of the Andes, despite low density. • Lack of data on gender and age distribution across the range. • Data gathered tends to be specific to small regions. Due to the mountainous nature of the habitat, total numbers can only be estimated by modelling based on what little data is available. This conservation strategy is based on 5 key actions to be achieved over a ten year timescale: Further research aimed at revealing distinct populations and sub-populations, gene flow and general population trends. Research and promote scavenger safe drugs for livestock. Legally binding and international efforts are required. Educate local people in all 7 countries along the species range- aimed at reducing persecution and the use of captive breeding programs to supply birds for the Yawar Fiesta. Model latent threat, including the impact of local economies on land use change. Establish cross borxder communication with the aim of a establishing a strong network of roosts- devised by Lambertucci, 2008. • References: • Ferguson-Lees, J,; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. • Hamilton-James, C. (2012). Yawar Fiesta [Photograph] http://thephotosociety.org/blog/yawar-fiesta/. • Cardillo, M., Mace, G., Jones, K., Bielby, J., Bininda-Emonds, O., Sechrest, W., Orme, C. & Purvis, A. (2005) Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Science, 309, 1239–1241. • Oaks, J., Gilbert, M., Virani, M., Watson, R., Meteyer, C., Rideout, B., Shivaprasad, H., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A. & Khan, A. (2004). Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427, 630–633. • BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Vultur gryphus. Downloaded fromhttp://www.birdlife.org on 15/02/2012. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/02/2012. • Hendrickson, S., Bleiweiss, R., Matheus J., Silva de Matheus L., Jácome N., Pavez E.  (2003)  Low genetic variability in the geographically widespread Andean Condor.  Condor 105: 1-12. • Sibley, C., & Munroe, B. (1990) Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. • Lambertucci S. (2007) Biología y conservación del Cóndor Andino (Vultur gryphus) en Argentina Hornero, 22:149–158. • Richards N., Scott K., Hall, S. & Harrison N. (2006) Detection of NSAIDs in livestock animals and scavenging birds of prey with emphasis on vultures and condors Vulture News 54:68-71. • Lambertucci, S., Jácome, N., & Trejo, A. (2008). Use of communal roosts by Andean Condors in northwest Patagonia, Argentina. J. Field Ornithol.79, 138–146. • Uzeda, B., and Wallace., R. (2007) Estimating the size of the Andean Condor population in the Apolobamba Mountains of Bolivia.Journal of Field Ornithology78: 170–175